Card Set Information
Geology Sedimentology Rocks Seds
Sed's class College level.
What is sedimentology?
The geology of sedimentary rocks.
What is Stratigraphy?
The study of rock layers (strata); mostly the study of sedimentary rocks.
The study of rock layers is called __________.
___________ is the geology of sedimentary rocks.
NACSN is what?
North American Commision on Stratigraphic Monemclature.
What did the NACSN develop?
Code of Stratigraphic Nomenclature
What is Stratigraphic Classification?
It systematically arranges and partitions bodies of rock or unconsolidated materials of the Earth's crust into units based on their inherent properties or atributes.
_________________ systematically arranges and partitions bodies of rock or unconsolidated materials of the Earth's crust into units based on their inherent properties or attributes.
What is Lithostratigraphy?
It defines rock units on the basis of their physical features.
Which has no time connotation?
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
What does Lithostratigraphy deal with?
Stratified tabular rocks that conform to the pronciple of superposistion.
Who is James Hutton?
Geologist who founded Uniformitarianism.
What is Uniformitarianism?
The present is key to the past.
Who was Nicolas Steno?
Physician and scientist who founded basic principles of Stratigraphy.
Who came up with Principle of Superposistion?
What is Priciple of Superposition?
In Sequence of undisturbed strata the oldest layer is on the bottom, youngest on the top.
__________________ is when in sequence of undisturbed strata the oldest is on the bottom, and the youngest is on top.
Priciple of Superposition
Who came up with the Priciple of Original Horizontality?
What is the Priciple of Original Horizontalty?
Sedimentary layers are originally deposited horizontally and parallel to surfaces.
______________ says that sedientary layers are originally deposited horizontally and parallel to surfaces.
Priciple of Origianl Horizontalty.
Principle of Original Lateral Continutity was created by ______________.
Princple of Original Lateral Continuity states that ______________.
Strata extend in all directions and either thin or abrubtly end at the edge of a sedimentary basin.
_________________ states that strata extend in all directions and either thin or abrubtly end at the edge of a sedimentary basin.
Principle of Orginal Lateral Continuity.
Who was Charles Lyell?
Wrote Principles of Geology
What do Lyell's Principles include?
Principle of cross-cutting relationships and
Principle of inclustions
Who came up with the Principle of cross-cutting relationships?
What does the Priiple of cross- cutting relationships state?
a geologic feature that cuts across roc is younger than the rock it cuts across.
____________ state that a geologic feature that cuts across another rock is younger than the rock it cuts across.
Principle of Cross-cutting relationships.
Who created the Priciple of Inclusions?
What does the Principle of Inclusions state?
Fragments within larger rock masses are older than the rock in which they are enclosed.
______________ states that fragments within larger rock masses are older than the rock in which they are enclosed.
Principles of Inclusion
What are Lithostratigraphic units?
Bodies of rock that are distinguished an defined by thier lithological (rock) characteristics and their stratagraphic position relative to other bodies of rock.
Bodies of rock that are distingushed and defined by their lithological (rock) characteristics and their stratigraphic position relative to toher bodies of rock are called ______________.
What principle do Lithostratigraphic units conform to?
Priciple of Superposition.
What are Lithostratigraphic units sperated by?
_______ seperated Lithostratagraphic units.
When a contact is abrupt it is ____________.
Seperate beds of different lithology.
Seperate beds of different lithologies have what kind of contact?
What is a Gradational Contact?
Where lithology uniformly changes.
When lithology changes uniformly at a contact it is what kind of contact?
Intercalated Contacts are ________.
Thin interbeds of another lithology that appear upward in the section.
Thin interbeds of another lithology that appear upward in the section of contact are called _________.
Formal Rock Units are always capitalized.
What are the Formal Rock Units?
What is a lithosome?
Masses of rock with unifrom character with intertonguing relationships with adjecent masses of different lithologies.
Masses of rock with uniform character with intertounging relationships with adjecent masses of different lithologies are called __________.
What is Formation?
A basic mapping unit.
A basic Mapping Unit is called a _______.
Formations must have __________.
Mappability and lithologic constancy
What is a Member?
Horizontal or Vertical subdivision of a least of formation.
______ is a Horizontal or Vertical subdivision of at least on formation.
Terminate on all sides within a formation.
_______ teminate on all sides within a formation.
Tounge is ________.
Extends outward beyond the main body of the formation.
_________ extends outward beyond the main body of formation.
Groups are _______.
An assemblage of 2 or more seccessive formations.
________ are an assemblage of 2 or more formations.
Groups may be divded into _______.
Subgroups or supergroups.
What is a Complex?
Formal lithostratigraphic unit of varible rank.
_______ are formal lithostratigraphic units of variable rank.
Complex's are made up of what types of rock?
Sed, Ig, Meta
What are beds?
The smallest formal lithostratigraphic unit.
_____ are the smallest formal lithstratigraphic units.
Why are beds important?
They can have ecomonic use.
Are beds used in Mapping?
Yes as marker beds.
Bedding is ____.
the subplanar dicontinutiy that separates adjacent layers of rock.
______ are the suplanar discontinuity that separated adjacent layers of rock.
______ is smallest formal lithostratigraphic unit of volcanic rock.
What is a Zone?
informal unit with distinct physical properties.
Correlation is ______.
demonstrating equivaency of stratographic units.
Correlation must be supported by __.
Biostratigraphic or Chronostratigraphic information.
Biostratigraphic or Chronostratigraphic units support______.
What is Lithocorrelation?
Links units of similar lithology and stratigraphic position.
________ links units of similar lithology and stratigraphic position.
Biocorrelation is ______.
linking units by their fossil content and biostratigraphic position.
Tracing Laterical Continuity is ______ .
"Walking Out" units on surface or " section snatching" in the subsurface.
Tracing Lateral Continuty is used for ________.
Lithologic Similatiry is _______.
Bases on gross lithology.
What is a Facies?
lithologic product of depositional system.
_______ is the lithologic product of a depositonal system.
Stratigraphic Position in Sequence is _______.
When sandwich units betweens "key" or "marker beds".
How is correlation established?
Tracing Lateral Continuty
Stratigraphic Posistion in Sequence
Unconformity is ______.
Any important stratigraphic discontinity.
What is Angular unconformity?
Surface seperating tilted or folded strata from overlaying undisturbed strata.
Surface is tilting or folding strata from undisturbed strata is called_______.
Nonconformity is when_.
Erosion surface between sedimentary and ig/met rocks.
The erosion surface between sed. and ig/met rocks is called ______.
What is a Disconformity?
unconformity between essentially paralled strata.
Unconformity between essentially paralled strata is called ______.
What is Paraconformity?
unrecognizable in outsrops without use of fossils, absolute dating, etc.
_______ is unrecognizable in outcrop without using fossils, abosolute dating, etc.
What is a Diastem?
very minor pauses or breaks in depositon with little or no erosion before deposition is resumed.
_____ are very minor pauses or breaks in depositon with little or no erosion before depositon is resumed.
What is a Hiatus?
geologic time that is not represented by strata at a certain point in a stratagraphic section or sequence.
_________ is a geologic time that is not represented by strata at a certain point in a stratagraphic section or sequence.
______ is a gap or break in the rock record.
What is a lacuna?
Gap or break in the rock record.
What is a Conformity?
a surface that sparates older from younger strata but with no apparent break in the rock record.
_________ is a surface that separated older from younger with no apparent break in the rock record.
What is Geophysical correlation?
Correlation by means of well logs.
Whay is Cyclic Sedimentation?
With repetitions of strata that reflect the repetition of realted depositional processes and conditions.
_________ is repetitions of strata that reflect the repetiotion of related depostional proccesses and conditions.
What is Auto cylcitic succession?
Controlled by process taking place within the sed. basin.
Allocyclic successions are _____
caused maily by varational external to the depositional basin.
What are chemical reservoirs?
bodies of key elements and compounds in the Earth system that shrink or expand as fluxes between them change.
What effects Chemical reservoirs?
Photosynthsis and Respiration
Carbon dioxide and oxygen cycles
Neg. feedback in Carbon Dioxide and FGlobal warming
What is event stratigraphy?
if trying to establish time-equivalence you need to have evidence of wide spread, distictive and geologically instanteous event
What are some events in event stratigraphy?
Sea level changes.
Tephrostratigraphy/Tephrochronolgy is the _______.
correltaion of volcanic ash marker beds.
Eustatic Seal level Changes are-.
World wide changes in sea level.
Relative Sea Level Changes ______.
affect local areas.
Paracyles are ______.
Small-scale realtive rise in sea level follwed by a standstill.