A&P I lab 2-28-12.txt

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A&P I lab 2-28-12.txt
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anatomy lab quiz 2-28-12
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  1. What two things are the fluids in your body comprised of ?
    • Water
    • Solutes
  2. Define osmosis:
    Diffusion of water through a selectivly permeable membrane from a higher concentration to a lower concentration of water.
  3. Where are fluids absorbed into plasma
    the intestines
  4. What do fluids do to the cells in the body
    Bathe them
  5. What do the kidneys do ?
    remove excess ions and water through urine
  6. list the 3 functions of fliud in the body
    • tempurature regulation
    • protective cushion
    • lubricant
  7. define reactant
    the substances that participiate and is used up in a chemical reaction
  8. hydrolyze
    broken apart by addition of water to covalent bonds
  9. funtion of hydrolyze
    solvent
  10. define solvent
    substance in which another substance is dissovled. In the body the solvent is water.
  11. purpose of solvents
    transport
  12. what percentage of a healthy young mans body is comprised of water?
    60%
  13. what percentage of a newborns body is comprised of water?
    73%
  14. what percentage of a person with increased fat's body is comprised of water?
    40%
  15. what percentage of a older person's body is comprised of water?
  16. What is the term for fluid found within the cells (aka cytosol)
    intercellular fluid
  17. what is the term for fluid found outside the cell
    extracellular fluid
  18. what is the term for the type of extracellular fluid that surrounds cells?
    interstitial fluid
  19. what is the term for the type of extracellular fluid that makes up the fluid component of the blood?
    plasma
  20. what does the term body fluid refer to?
    water (solvent) in body and all of its dissovled substances (solutes)
  21. what does the typical body fluid contain?
    solutes or electrolytes
  22. define solute
    substance that is dissolved in a solution
  23. define ions
    charged particles
  24. define electrolytes
    ions (charged particles) that are dissolved in the body fluids
  25. define colloids
    Large particles such as proteins which are dispersed in a body fluid
  26. define non-electrolyte
    uncharged molecules dissolved in body fluids
  27. do blood cells dissolve in water
    no
  28. are blood cells a part of body fluid
    no
  29. List the 4 major positive ions include name and symbol
    • Sodium - Na+
    • Potassium - K +
    • Calcium - Ca+
    • Magnesium - Mg +
  30. List the 6 major negative ions (anions) include name and symbol
    • Chloride - Cl-
    • Bicarbonate - HCO- 3
    • Phosphate ions - H2PO4
    • Sulfate ions - SO2 4
    • Organic acids
    • protein
  31. what is the major extracellular positive ion?
    Sodium - Na+
  32. what is the major intercellular positive ion?
    potassium - K+
  33. what is the major extracellular negative ion?
    Chloride - Cl-
  34. what sre the 2 major intracellular negative ions
    • phosphates
    • proteins
  35. what electrolyte is found in very small amounts in the interstitial fluid?
    Potassium
  36. list the 6 functions of electrolytes
    • cofactors for enzymes
    • action potentials in neuron and muscle cells
    • secretion and action of hormones and neurotransmitters
    • mucle contractions
    • acid/base balance
    • secondary active transport osmosis
  37. define isotonic
    two solutions with the same concentrations of non-penetrating solutions seperated by a selectivly permiable membrane
  38. define hypertonic
    a solution with a higher concentration of non-penetrating solutes
  39. define hypotonic
    a solution with lower concentration of non-penetrating solutes
  40. what effect does a hypertonic solution have on cells?
    water moves out of the cells and they shrink or crenate
  41. what effect does a hypotonic solution have on cells?
    water moves in and they expand
  42. define osmotic pressure
    the pressure required to prevent the movement of a solvent (water) into a solution containing solutes when the solutions are seperated by a selectivly permeable membrane
  43. what type of IV solution is usually given?
    isotonic
  44. what will happen if a red blood cell is placed into a hypotonic solution
    it will expand
  45. define hemolysis
    when a blood cell breaks apart
  46. what will happen when a blood cell is placed into a isotonic solution?
    it remains unchanged
  47. what will happen if a RBC is placed into a hypertonic solution
    it will shrink
  48. define crenate
    shrinkage of RBC's
  49. how much water does the average adult body contian
    40 ltrs
  50. list the types of water intake along with amounts
    • food and drink 2300ml
    • cell metabolism 200ml
  51. list the types of water outputs and amount
    • kidneys 1500ml
    • skin 600ml
    • lungs 300ml
    • GI tract 100ml
  52. define hypervolemia
    excess of fluid volume accompanied by normal osmalarity in all fluid spaces
  53. when does hypervolemia occur
    when too much water and solute are taken in at the same time
  54. define osmalarity
    the total concentration of all solute particles in a solution
  55. what effect does hypervolemia have on plasma osmalarity?
    it remains normal
  56. define over hydration
    excess of water only with increases volume and decreased osmolarity in all fluid spaces
  57. what effect does overhydration have on plasma osmolarity?
    plasma osmolarity decreases
  58. define hypovolemia
    deficit of fluid volume accompanied by normal osmolarity in all fliud spaces
  59. define dehydration
    deficit of water only with increased osmaolarity
  60. what effect does dehydration have on osmolarity
    it increases
  61. blood loss is associated with what condition
    hypovolemia
  62. sweating is associated with what condition
    dehydration
  63. infusion with an IV of isotonic solution is associated with what condition
    hypervolemia
  64. drinking too much water is associated with what condition
    over hydration
  65. what are the 4 mechinisms that regulate fluid homeostasis
    • antidiuretic hormone
    • thirst mechanism
    • aldosterone
    • sympathetic nervous system
  66. the two tissues for antidiuretic hormone are located in what organ
    kidney
  67. what does antidiuretic hormone increase?
    the reabsorbtion of H2O
  68. what effect does ADH have on the concentration of the plasma?
    plasma becomes more dilute
  69. what effect does ADH have on the volume and osmolarity of urine produced?
    there is less urine and increased osmolarity
  70. ehat does the stimulation of the thirst center in the hypothalamus resut in
    increased thirst
  71. describe the effect of aldosterone on the movement of Na
    it allows sodium to move from filtrate into plasma (sodium reabsorbtion)
  72. describe the effect aldosterone has on the movement of potassium
    moves from plasma to the filtrate (potassium secretion)
  73. if ADH is present what will water do?
    water will follow sodium into plasma by osmosis
  74. if ADH is present what will happen to blood pressure?
    BP increases
  75. list the 3 results of aldosterones actions
    • sodium is reabsorbed into plasma
    • potassium is secreted into urine
    • stabilizes blood pressure
  76. what will a decrease in blood volume and therefor blood pressure stimulate?
    sympathetic nervous system
  77. define sympathetic nervous system
    that branch of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for the flight or fight response
  78. will sympathetic stimulation cause more or less urine formationq
    less
  79. will sympathetic stimulation cause more or less water to leave the body
    less water

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