A&P I test 3

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A&P I test 3
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2012-02-27 13:01:07
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  1. cytoplasm
    cellular material outside nucleus but inside plasma membrane. composed of cytosol, cytoskeleton, and organelles.
  2. cytosol
    fluid portion of cytoplasm. made up of dissolved molecules (ions in water) and colloid (proteins in water)
  3. cytoskeleton
    supports cell but has to allow for movment like chaange in cell shape and movement of cillia
  4. microtubules (large)
    internal scaffold, transport. cell didvision
  5. Microfilaments: actin
    Structure, support for microvilli, contractility, movement
  6. Intermediate filaments:
    mechanical strength
  7. The Nucleus and Cytoplasmic Organelles
    • Small specialized structures with particular functions
    • Have membranes that separate interior of organelles from cytoplasm
    • Related to specific structure and function of the cell
  8. Nucleus
    • Membrane-bound
    • Nucleoplasm, nucleolus (programs the formation of ribosomes), and nuclear envelope
    • Much of the DNA in a cell located here
  9. Chromosome Structure
    • Chromatin: DNA complexed with proteins (histones)
    • During cell division, chromatin condenses into pairs of chromatids called chromosomes.
    • Each pair of chromatids is joined by a centromere
  10. Ribosomes
    • Sites of protein synthesis
    • Composed of a large and a small subunit
    • Types: Free, Attached (to endoplasmic reticulum)
  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Types;
    • Rough: Has attached ribosomes, Proteins produced and modified
    • Smooth: No attached ribosomes,Manufactures lipids
    • Cisternae: Interior spaces isolated from rest of cytoplasm
  12. Peroxisomes
    • Smaller than lysosomes
    • Contain enzymes to break down (detoxify) fatty acids and amino acids
    • Hydrogen peroxide is a by-product of breakdown
  13. Mitochondria
    • Major site of ATP synthesis
    • Membranes;
    • Cristae: infoldings of inner membrane
    • Matrix: substance located in space formed by inner membrane
    • Mitochondria increase in number when cell energy requirements increase.
    • Mitochondria contain DNA that codes for some of the proteins needed for mitochondria production.
  14. Cilia
    • Appendages projecting from cell surfaces
    • Capable of movement
    • Moves materials over the cell surface
  15. Centrioles and Spindle Fibers
    • Located in centrosome: specialized zone of cytoplasm near the nucleus
    • Center of microtubule formation
    • Before cell division, centrioles divide, move to ends of cell and organize spindle fibers
  16. Flagella
    • Similar to cilia but longer
    • Usually only one per cell
    • Move the cell itself in wave-like fashion
    • Example: Sperm cell
  17. Microvilli
    • Extension of plasma membrane
    • Increase the cell surface area
    • Normally many on each cell
    • One tenth to one twentieth size of cilia
    • Do not move
  18. Protein Synthesis
    • Nucleic Acids Store Genetic Information
    • DNA: instructions for making RNA (transcription)
    • RNA: instructions for making proteins (translation)
    • Proteins: direct most of life’s processes
    • DNA → RNA → Proteins
  19. The Role of RNA in Protein Synthesis
    • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is synthesized from a gene segment of DNA which ultimately contains the information on the primary sequence of amino acids in a protein to be synthesized. Carries the code from the cell nucleus into the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs.
    • In the cytoplasm, ribsomal RNA (rRNA) and protein combine to form ribosomes.
    • The ribosome serves as the site for protein synthesis.
    • Transfer RNA (tRNA) contains about 75 nucleotides, three of which are called anticodons, and one amino acid. The tRNA reads the code and carries the amino acid to be incorporated into the developing protein.
  20. Regulation of Gene Expression
    • All nucleated cells except germ cells have the full complement of DNA.
    • During the lifetime of a cell, the rate of protein synthesis varies depending upon chemical signals that reach the
    • cell.
    • Example: thyroxine from the thyroid causes cells to increase their metabolic rate. More thyroxine, higher metabolic rate; less thyroxine, lower metabolic rate.
  21. Cell Life Cycle
    • Interphase: phase between cell divisions
    • Replication of DNA
    • Ongoing normal cell activities
    • Mitosis: series of events that leads to the production of two cells by division of a mother cell into two daughter cells.
    • Cells are genetically identical.
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis: division of cell cytoplasm
  22. PMAT
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  23. Replication of DNA
    • DNA strands separate
    • The old strands become the templates for the new (complementary) strands to form
    • Two identical DNA molecules are formed
  24. Cell Division
    • Interphase: DNA replication occurs
    • Mitosis
    • Prophase: nuclear envelope disintegrates, chromatin condenses, spindles attach to kinetochore
    • Metaphase: chromosomes are aligned at the nuclear equator
    • Anaphase: spindles separate the chromatids, cytokinesis begins
    • Telophase: chromosomes decondense, nuclear envelope reforms, cytokinesis continues
    • Cytokinesis: cytoplasmic division, separate process from mitosis
  25. Meiosis and the Transmission of Genes
    • Meiosis: DNA replication followed by two cell divisions
    • Homologous pairs are separated
    • Resulting gametes (egg, sperm) unite to form a zygote
    • Homologous pairs are reunited
    • New pairs are a mixture of DNA from two individuals
  26. Genetic Disorders
    • Genetic disorders: abnormalities in DNA
    • Congenital disorders: Birth defects not necessarily genetic
    • Mutation;
    • Mutagens: agents that cause mutations
    • Cancer: tumor resulting from uncontrolled cell divisions
    • Carcinogens
    • Genetic susceptibility or predisposition
  27. Tissues and Histology
    • Tissue classification based on structure
    • of cells and cell function
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  28. Histology:
    microscopic study of tissues
  29. Biopsy:
    removal of tissues for diagnostic purposes
  30. Epithelial Tissue
    • Consists almost entirely of cells
    • Covers body surfaces and forms glands
    • Outside surface of the body
    • Lining of digestive, respiratory and urogenital systems
    • Heart and blood vessels
    • Linings of many body cavities
    • Basement membrane
    • Specialized cell contacts
    • Avascular
    • Regenerate
  31. Basement Membrane
    • Extracellular: formed by secretions of both epithelium and connective tissue. Acellular “glue”
    • Attachment to C.T.
    • Acts as a filter in the nephron of the kidney
    • Not every epithelium has a basement membrane associated with it
  32. Functions of Epithelial Tissue
    • Protecting underlying structures; e.g., epithelium lining the mouth
    • Acting as barriers; e.g., skin
    • Permitting the passage of substances; e.g., nephrons in kidney
    • Secreting substances; e.g., pancreas
    • Absorbing substances; e.g., lining of small intestine
  33. Classification of Epithelium
    Number of layers of cells
    • Simple: one layer of cells. Each extends from basement membrane to the free surface
    • Stratified: more than one layer. Shape of cells of the apical layer used to name the tissue. Includes transitional epithelium where the apical cell layers change shape depending upon distention of the organ which the tissue lines
    • Pseudostratified: tissue appears to be stratified, but all cells contact basement membrane so it is in fact simple
  34. Shape of cells
    • Squamous: flat, scale-like
    • Cuboidal: about equal in height and width
    • Columnar: taller than wide
  35. Functional Characteristics
    • Simple: allows diffusion of gases, filtration of blood, secretion, absorption
    • Stratified: protection, particularly against abrasion
    • Squamous: allows diffusion or acts as filter
    • Cuboidal and columnar: secretion or absorption.
    • May include goblet cells that produce and secrete mucus.
  36. Free Surfaces of Epithelium
    • Smooth: reduce friction
    • Microvilli: increase surface area for absorption or secretion
    • Stereocilia: elongated microvilli for sensation and absorption
    • Cilia: move materials across the surface
    • Folds: in transitional epithelium where organ must be able to change shape. Urinary system.
  37. Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • Structure: single layer of flat cells
    • Locations; Lining of blood and lymphatic vessels (endothelium), Alveoli of the lungs, Lining of serous membranes
    • Functions: diffusion, filtration, secretion, absorption.
  38. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    Structure:
    single layer of cube-shaped cells; some types have microvilli (kidney tubules) or cilia (terminal bronchioles of the lungs)
  39. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    Locations
    • Kidney tubules
    • Glands and their ducts
    • Lining of terminal bronchioles of the lungs
  40. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    Functions
    • Secretion and reabsorption in the kidney
    • Secretion in glands
    • Movement of mucus out of the terminal bronchioles by ciliated cells.
  41. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    Structure:
    single layer of tall, narrow cells.Some have cilia (bronchioles of lungs, uterine tubes, and uterus) or microvilli(intestine).
  42. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    Locations
    • Bronchioles of lungs
    • Uterus
    • Uterine tubes
    • Intestines
  43. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    Functions
    • Movement of particles out of the bronchioles by ciliated cells
    • Aids in the movement of oocytes through the uterine tubes by ciliated cells
    • Absorption by cells of the intestine.
  44. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    Structure
    multiple layers of cells that are cuboidal in the basal layer and progressively flatten toward the surface. In moist, surface cells retain a nucleus and cytoplasm. In keratinized, surface cells are dead.
  45. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    location
    • Moist: mouth, throat, larynx, esophagus, anus, vagina, inferior urethra, and cornea
    • Keratinized: skin
  46. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    Function
    protection against abrasion, caustic chemicals, water loss, and infection
  47. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
    Structure:
    multiple layers of cube-shaped cells.
  48. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
    Locations:
    sweat gland ducts and salivary gland ducts
  49. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
    Functions:
    secretion and absorption
  50. Stratified Columnar Epithelium
    Structure:
    multiple layers of cells with tall thincells resting on layers of more cuboidal cells. Cells ciliated in the larynx.
  51. Stratified Columnar Epithelium
    Locations:
    mammary gland duct, larynx, portion ofmale urethra.
  52. Stratified Columnar Epithelium
    Function:
    protection and secretion

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