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Spinal Cord, what is it?
What does it contain/have?
Link between brain and rest of body.
Has spinal nerves which carry motor & sensory stimuli.
How many pairs of spinal nerves are in the:
(Hint: Think of a regular office job shift and lunch time)
Cervical: 8 pairs of spinal nerves attached to the cervix.
Thoracic: 12 pairs
Lumbar: 5 pairs
Sacral: 5 pairs
Coccygeal: 1 pair
What is the Conus medullaris? (clinical importance)
What is the Filum terminale?
What is the Cauda equina?
"Inferior end of spinal cord". (L1 - L2)
A strand of pia mater off end of conus.
"horse's tail"-Nerve roots from inferior end of the spinal cord.(All above 3 parts are a part of the Conus medullaris & cauda equina)
Spinal Cord Meninges.
Explain the layers from the innermost to the outermost of the skull.
What is between these 3 layers?
- Piamater: surface of spinal cord.
- (subarachnoid space)
- Arachnoid mater: CSF
- (sub duraal space)
- Dura mater: thick outer layer
Features of the Spinal Cord.Segments.
*locate on p. 147: posterior/anterior
- Posterior & lateral horns are interconnected.
- (lateral/anterior horn) motor function
- (Posterior) sensory function
White matter: (posterior/lateral/anterior) funiculus; white commissure.
Gray matter: (posterior/lateral/anterior) horn; gray commissure
Cross Section of Spinal Cord with Spinal Nerves
Dorsal root ganglion (cell bodies associated w/ dorsal root)
What's the function of the intervertebral foramina?
Spinal nerves exit through these foramen (openings/holes).
Posterior and Anterior Roots.
What do the posterior roots contain?
What neuron is located at the anterior horn of the spinal cord?
Joining of posterior/anterior roots form?
Posterior roots contain Central processes.
Sensory cell bodies: posterior root ganglia.
Interneurons: anterior horn of spinal cord.
Joinging: of a posterior and anterior form a spinal nerve.
Posterior and Anterior Rami, where is each distributed in the body?
Distribution of Posterior Rami
What are they innervated by?
Posterior Rami: distributed along the spine.
Anterior Rami: body wall and extremities.
Innervated by plexuses formed by dorsal rami.
What is the Nerve Plexus?
2 largest nerve plexuses are...
Network of anterior rami
Allows nerves formed from spinal nerves
- 2 largest nerve plexuses:
- 1) brachial
- 2) lumbosacral
Spinal Nerves pairs on Cervix and thoracic nerves.
How many cervical bones/nerves are there?
How are they located on the spinal column?
*Go through with Thoracic bones/nerves as well.
Cervical bones: 7; cervical nerves: 8
(Each cervical nerve is located above that cervical bone)
Ex: Cranial bone 1, above, CN 1 / CN 8 is below C7.
Thoracic nerves lie below each Thoracic bone (12 Thoracic bones, 12 Thoracic Nerves)
What are the nerves of the upper extremities? (5)
AMRMU (recite the mnemonic)
What are the nerves of the lower extremities? (6)
GFOTFM (recite mnemonic)
- Mnemonic: Avie Made Rice Monday, Ugh.
- (Axillary, Musculocutaneous, Radial, Median, Ulnar)
- Mnemonic: Girl Friend Or The Friend Mechanism.
- (Gluteal, Femoral, Obturator, Tibial, Fibular, Medial & Lateral Plantar Nerves)
Significance of brachial plexus? (upper extremities)
Travels between C5-T1 (cervix 5 to Thoracic 1)
*Muscles innervated; what do they do? Location? Distribution?
Axillary Nerve; causes what numbness?
Location? (On the cervix)
Innervates? (2 muscles)
Shoulder numbness: Axillary Nerve
Location: C5-C6 & down
2 muscles innervated: Deltoid, Teres Minor
Innervates? (3 muscles in anterior arm)
Main function of biceps brachii?
Location: C5, C6, C7 & down
- 1) biceps brachii (both heads),
- 2) brachialis
- 3) coracobrachilis
Main function of biceps: Flex at the elbow.
Innervation? (3 muscles; posterior/anterior forearm)
Extension from where (of the arm)? (3 areas)
Location: C7, C8 & down
- 1) Triceps brachii
- 2) Brachioradialis
- 3) Extensor muscles of forearm
Extension at the elbow, wrist, fingers.
Median Nerve (passes through carpal tunnel: numbness of skin).
Actions* (flexes these areas)
Location: C6, C7, C8, T1 & down.
- 1) flexor forearm muscles
- 2) abductor pollicis brevis
- 3) flexor pollicis brevis
Action: flex wrist/fingers/*thumb
"hitting the funny bone"
Most important function? (responsible for this action of the hand)
Location: C8, T1 ONLY (none down)
Innervates: muscles in palm of hand.
Forearm muscles: flex DIPS
*Responsible for "grip" (for EXAM)
Innervate? (also where on the lumbar column)
- Innervates: Rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis (quads)
- *L2, 3, 4
Action: extend at knee (leg extensor)
Flex at the hip (sartorius, pectinueus, psoas major, iliacus)
Innervation? (also where on the lumbar column)
Innervation: *L2, 3 4;
- Adductor longus: brevis, magnus, gracilis.
Sensory: upper medial thigh (adduct)
Tibial Nerve.(sciatic nerve)
Muscles? (which bones of lumbar and sacral column)
- 2 nerves are:
- Tibial and common fibular
- Muscles: (L4, L5, S1 - 3)
- Posterior thigh: biceps femoris (long head), semitendinosus, semimembranosus.
*Extend: hip/Flexion: knee/toes
Collectively are: *Plantar flexors
Fibular (common) Nerve (w/ superficial & deep fibular nerves)
Innervation? (which bones of lumbar and sacral columns)
Innervates: anterior/lateral leg (superficial & deep)
*L4, L5, S1, S2, S3
Superficial Fibular Nerve (part of Fibular Nerve)
Action of the foot? (2 muscles innervated)
*Eversion of foot: Fibuluaris longus, fibularis brevis.
Deep Fibular Nerve (part of Fibular Nerve)
(group of muscles): Tibialis anterior, extensor hallcuis longus, Extensor digitorum longus.
Define the two.
Which is the fastest of the two?
Moving a part of your body through subconsious stimulation.
- Poly: Pain --> skin (sensory --> interneuron --> motor neuron)
- Ex: hot stove contact
- Monosynaptic: one neuron to second neuron (one synapse).
- -Fastest type of nerve conduction in body.
- -Sensory input: "quick stretch to a muscle"
- -Pateller (knee jerk) reflex