stats 355

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stats 355
2012-02-27 15:08:32
stats 355 section

stats section 3 definitions
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  1. based on haphazardly selected individual cases
    Anecdotal evidence
  2. data that were produced in the past for some other purpose but that may help answer a present question
    Available data
  3. observe individuals and measure variables of interest but do not attempt to influence the responses
    observational study
  4. deliberately impose some treatment on individuals and observe their responses
  5. individuals on which the experiment is done
    experimental units
  6. when the experimental units are human beings
  7. a specific experimental condition applied to the units is called:
  8. When the design of a study systematically favors certain outcomes
  9. The group of patients who received a sham treatment
    control group
  10. An observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance is called:
    statistically significant
  11. neither subjects themselves nor the medical personnel who worked with them knew which treament any subject had received
  12. a group of experimental units or subjects that are known before the experiment to be similar in some way that is expected to affect the response to the treatments
  13. the random assignment of units to treatments is carried out separately within each block
    block design
  14. the basic principles of statistical design of experiments:
    • control
    • randomization
    • repetition
  15. entire group of individuals that we want information about is called:
  16. part of the population that we actually examine in order to gather information
  17. consists of people who choose themselves by responding to a general appeal
    voluntary response sample
  18. size of n consists of n individuals from the population chosen in such a way that every set of n individuals has an equal chance to e the sample actually selected
    Simple random sample
  19. a sample chosen by chance
    probability sample
  20. divide the population into groups of similar individuals, then choose a seperate SRS in each stratum and combine these STSs to form the full sample
    stratified random sample
  21. occurs when some groups in the population are left out of the process of choosing the sample
  22. occurs when an individual chosen for the sample can't be contacted or does not cooperate
  23. When their effects on a response variable connot be distinguished from each other
  24. the observed associations between two variables are due to:
    cause and effect relationship btwn thses variables