The reporting structure and division of labor in an organization.
A form of organization that seeks to maximize internal efficiency.
An organizational form that emphasizes flexability
An aspect of the organization's internal environment created by job specialization and the division of labor.
The degree to which differentiated work units work together and coordinate their efforts.
The assignment of different tasks to different people or groups.
division of labor
A process in which different individuals and units perform different tasks.
The procedures that link the various parts of a organization to achieve the organization's overall mission.
The legitimate right to make decisions and to tell other people what to do.
The number of subordinates who report directly to an executive or supervisor.
span of control
The assignment of new or additional responsibilities to a subordinate.
The assignment of a task that an employee is supposed to carry out.
The expectation that employees will perform a job, take corrective action when necessary, and report upward on the status and quality of their performance.
An organization in which high-level executives make most decisions and pass them to lower levels for implementation.
An organization in which lower-level managers make importantdecisions.
Uits that deal directly with the organization's primary goods and services.
Units that support line departments.
Subdividing an organization into smaller subunits.
Departmentalization around specialized activities such as production, marketing, and human resources.
Departmentalization that groups units around products, customers, or geographic regions.
An organization composed of dual reporting relationships in which some managers report to two superiors-a functional manager and a divisional manager.
A structure in which each worker reports to one boss, who in turn reports to one boss.
Temporary arrangements among partners that can be assembled and reassembled to adapt to the environment.
A person who assembles and coordinates participants in a network.
Establishing common routines and procedures that apply uniformly to everyone.
The presence of rules and regulations governing how people in the organization interact.
Interdependent units are required to meet deadlines and objectives that contribute to a common goal.
coordination by plan
Units interact with one another to make accommodations in order to achieve flexible coordination.
coordination by mutual adjustment
A formal relationship created among independent organizations with the purpose of joint pursuit of mutual goals.
An organizaiton skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
An organization in which top management ensures that there is consensus about the direction in which the business is heading.
An integrative approach to management that supports the attainment of customer satisfaction through a wide variety of tools and tchniques that result in high-quality goods and services.
total quality management (TQM)
A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of producers and consumer.
The systematic application of scientific knowledge to a new product, process, or service.
Technologies that produce goods and services in low volume.
Technologies that produce goods and services in high volume.
A process that is highly automated and has a continuous production flow.
The production of varied, individually customized products at the low cost of standardized, mass-produced products.
An operation that strives to achieve the highest possible productivity and total quality, cost-effectively, by eliminating unnecessary steps in the production process and continually striving for improvement.
A system that calls for subassemblies and components to be manufactured in very small lots and delivered to the next stage of the production process just as they are needed.