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What are the functions of Recorded music?
Primarily entertainment, art, and education
What was the first audio recording device?
- The Phonograph (aka "talking machine") - 1877 - Thomas Edison.
- This used a Tinfoil cylinder as a way to record.
What was the second recording device?
- The Graphophone - 1887 - Alexander G. Bell & Charles Tainter.
- This used Beeswax to record.
What device did the Victor Talking Machine Company launch?
- The Gramophone invented by Emile Berliner.
- This used a flat disc to record sound.
How many major labels were there in 1998?
How many major labels were there in 2004?
- Universal Music Group, Sony Music, EMI, Warner Music Group, & BMG.
How many major labels were there as of 2008?
- Universal Music Group, Sony Music, EMI, & Warner Music Group.
- BMG was absorbed into Sony Music.
The independent labels produce 66% of the albums each year but only 20% of the sales.
Who is the parent company of Universal Music Group?
What are the different ways of promoting music to fans ans public?
- Concert performances
- Music Videos
- Music placement on TV shows and Video games
What are the functions of radio?
- Entertainment, News & Information, Surveillance, & Marketing.
- Emergency broadcast medium.
What is the significance of Heinrich Hertz?
Hertz discovered radio waves (1885), which set the stage for the development of modern wireless communications, both fixed & mobile.
Who is Granville T. Woods?
Granville T. Woods was an African American scientist experimenting w/ radio technology as well. In 1887 he invented the "railway telegraphy," which allowed messages to be sent between moving trains & railroad station, reducing the frequency of railway collisions.
Who is Guglielmo Marconi?
- Marconi is an Italian who invented Radio Telegraphy in 1899. He called it "the wireless."
- This made possible real-time transmission of audio, in form of dots & dashes of Morse code, over distance w/out a wired connection.
- The first real radio transmission.
Do all agree that Marconi should be credited as the sole inventor of radio?
- No. Kentucky farmer Nathan B. Stubblefield created and demonstrated in 1892 a wireless communications device that could transmit voice & music over a short distance, about 500 feet.
- Stubblefield never patented his device.
What was USDA's involvement with radio at the turn of the century?
- In 1900 the U.S. Department of Agriculture financed Fessenden's early research.
- The USDA started using radio broadcasting to transmit weather reports in 1912. Initial transmissions were in telegraphic code, not human voice.
What did Fessenden design?
- In 1901 Fessenden obtained a patent for his new radio transmitter that was able to produce "continuous waves".
- This design is the basis for today's AM radio.
Who was the third key player in radio?
- Lee de Forest - a U.S. pioneer in radio - In 1907 developed a unique transmission (arc transmitter) technology for radio broadcasting of human voice.
- Reliable for point-to-point communication & broadcasting.
- de Forest's company supplied the U.S. Navy's Great White Fleet with arc radiotelephones.
What were the implications WWI had on radio?
- Development stopped when the U.S. went into the war.
- Radio stations were taken over by the government, some were shut down.
- It became illegal for citizens to own or operate transmitters or receivers w/out special permission.
When did commercial broadcasting begin?
- Commercial broadcasting began in 1920.
- The first election-night coverage.
What was the first station to do regular commercial broadcasts?
- AM station, KDKA of Pittsburgh, PA.
- They reported the results of the Harding-Cox presidential election.
What event helped establish radio as a major medium of mass communication?
- The July 1921 heavyweight boxing sporting event.
- Fight was between Champion Dempsey & challenger Carpentier.
- A temporary long-wave station, WJY broadcast the fight live, with technical help from RCA.
Who is Edwin Howard Armstrong?
- The inventor of FM Radio - 1934.
- He was an Engineering professor from Columbia University.
- He filed a lawsuit against RCA & other radio companies who were infringing on his FM Radio patent.
Who was the first network, and how did they form?
- National Broadcasting Network (NBC) was the first network to form.
- In 1926 RCA bought New York station WEAF (now WNBC) from AT&T.
- Same year, NBC bought WJZ from Westinghouse.
Who was the second network to form?
- CBS held the number-one position among the networks.
- Described itself as the Tiffany Network. Others called it Black Rock, referring to the black marble facade of its Manhattan headquarters.
Who was the third competing commercial network that emerged?
ABC emerged in the 1940s - television
How did the rise of televison affect radio?
- Radio lost its position of dominance and adapted by specializing.
- Specializing include: Program formats, time of day for certain formats, and audience demographics.
All stations in the U.S. are assigned call letters. . . Identify & distinguish the two.
- Call letters designate the station and its geographic location.
- W is the first call letter for stations east of the Mississippi.
- K is the call letter for stations west of the Mississippi.
Which has most listenership, AM or FM?
- AM's listenership exceeded FM listenership, up until late 1970's.
- After the 70's, FM became the most popular.
What were four factors that caused FM to become more popular?
- 1. The inclusion of an FM dial in most cars.
- 2. Changes in programming
- 3. Regulatory changes
- 4. FM has less static.
What caused the radio industry to become more of an oligopoly?
- Regulatory changes in 1992 & passage of Telecommunications Act in 1996 resulted in new FCC radio-ownership rules.
- These new rules put no limit on the number of radio stations that a single entity can own or control.
What are "duopoly rules"?
- Duopoly rules refer to a prohibition on any one person or group owning, operating, or controlling more than 2 AM stations & 2 FM stations in the largest markets.
- The rules also restricted the combined audience share to 25%.
- The Telecommunications Act ended these restrictions.
What do the supoorters for ownership consolidation argue?
- Supporters say that there is
- 1. an increase in efficiency;
- 2. more economical, centralized production;
- 3. larger budgets that permit greater programming experimentation and development;
- 4. more effective management.
What do the critics say about ownership consolidation?
Critics say that group ownership typically means less sensitivity to local concerns because owners are often remotely located.
Which two radio groups went private?
Clear Channel went private partly because of FCC regulations. And Cumulus Broadcasting, the second-largest group, went private in 2008.
What is Satellite radio?
- Satellite radio uses digital radio signals broadcast from a satellite.
- It is subscription based so it does not have the same restrictions regarding content that terrestrial broadcasters face.
Why will radio remain an important form of mass communication?
Radio is the only thing that allows people to easily engage in other activities while listening.