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2012-02-27 17:08:54

Test #2 Notes
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  1. What is the process of organisms use to get energy from organic molecules?
    Cellular Respiration
  2. What is the main goal of Cellular Respiration?
    To get energy (in form of ATP)
  3. Cellular Respiration undergoes two ______ reactions that are 1_____ & 2______
    • Hydrolysis
    • NADH --> NAD+
    • &
    • FDH2 --> FADH
  4. There are ___ types of Cellular Respiration, and they are 1_____ & 2_____
    • Two
    • 1. Aerobic
    • &
    • 2. Anaerobic
  5. Occurs in the presence of oxygen
    Aerobic Respiration
  6. Occurs in lack of xygen
    Formula: Organic molecule + O2 --> CO2 + H20 + Energy
    Anaerobic Respiration
  7. What is the main source of fuel for cells?
    Glucose Metabolism
  8. There are ___ stages of Glucose Metabolism?
  9. What are the 4 steps of Glucose Metabolism?
    • 1. Glycolysis
    • 2. Breakdown of Pyruvate
    • 3. Citric Acid Cycle
    • 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation
  10. What happens during Glycolysis?
    Glucose is converted into two molecules called PYRUVATES
  11. What do you get from Glycolysis?
    1 ATP and 2 NADH
  12. What happens during the Breakdown of Pyruvate?
    Pyruvate is converted to AcetylCoA
  13. What is created durng the Breakdown of Pyruvate?
    1 NADH
  14. What happens during the Citric Acid Cycle?
    AcetylCoA is converted to 2CO2
  15. What is created during the Citric Acid Cycle?
    1 ATP, 3 NADH and 1 FADH2
  16. What is another name of Oxidative Phosphorylation?
    Electron Transport Chain
  17. What happens during Oxidative Phosphorylation?
    NADH and FADH2 get used to produce 30-34 ATP
  18. TRUE or FALSE: Glycolysis can occur in the presence and absense of O2?
  19. What is pyruvate?
    • A 3-carbon molecule
    • *1 glucose = 2 pyruvate
  20. How many steps and phases are in Glycolysis?
    There are 10 steps and 3 phases.
  21. Where does Glycolysis take place?
    In Cytosol
  22. TRUE or FALSE: Glycolysis is uncommon to all organisms.
    • FALSE.
    • Glycolysis is COMMON to all organisms.
  23. What are the three phases of Glycolysis?
    • 1. Energy Investment
    • 2. Cleavage
    • 3. Energy Liberation
  24. How many steps are in Energy Investments?
  25. What happens during Energy Investment?
    Uses 2 ATP, 6 Carbon Sugar Glucose --2ATP--> 6 Carbon, 1 Fructose and 6 Biphosphate
  26. How many steps are in Cleavage?
  27. What happens during Cleavage?
    F1, 6B --> G3P (two molecules)
  28. How many steps are in Energy Liberation?
  29. What happens during Energy Liberation?
    2 G3P --> 2 Pyruvate (each have 3 carbons)
  30. TRUE or FALSE: Energy Liberation produces 2NADH nad 4 ATP with a net yield of 2 ATP?
  31. A mitochondrial matrix, transport protein that moves pyruvate in on secondary active transporters
  32. Secondary active transporters
  33. During the Breakdown of Pyruvate enzyme _______ _______, a catalyst that helps remove CO2
    Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  34. During the Breakdown of Pyruvate, add to ____ making whole molecule of ____ producing _____ per pyruvate.
    During the Breakdown of Pyruvate, add to CO-ENZYME A making whole molecule of ACETYLCOA produces 1NADH per pyruvate.
  35. What is another word for the Citric Acid Cycle?
    Kreb Cycle
  36. ______ enters cycle + 4 carbons of _____ to make citrate (6 carbons)
    ACETYL CoA enters cycle + 4 carbons of OXALOACETATE to make citrate (6 carbons)
  37. How many carbons are there when GTP/ATP are produced?
    4 carbons
  38. How many times does the cycle run per glucose?
    • 2 times
    • 4CO2, 2ATP, 2NADH, 2FADH2
  39. Citric Acid Cycle produes
    2CO2, 1 GTP(converts to ATP immediately), 3NADH and 1FADH2
  40. Where does the Citric Acid Cycle take place?
    In the mitochondria
  41. During the citric acid cycle
    properties of WATER add solute to H20 = lower freezing point/higher boiling points
  42. What is a chemical reaction involving water?
    Hydrolysis reaction
  43. What does an Hydrolysis reaction do?
    Breaks down larger molecules
  44. What is used in Oxidative Phosphorylation to make more ATP?
    NADH and FADH2
  45. How many ATP are created from NADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
    3 ATP
  46. How many ATP are created from FADH in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
    2 ATP
  47. TRUE or FALSE: Oxidative Phosphorylation is an Anaerobic process.
    • FALSE.
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation is an AEROBIC process.
  48. How many stages are in the Aerobic process of Oxidative Phosphorylation?
    2 Stages
  49. What are the two stages in the Aerobic process of Oxidative Phosphorylation?
    • 1. Oxidative Process
    • 2. Phosphorylation
  50. The Oxidative process of Oxidative Phosphorylation works as what?
    Electron Transport Chain
  51. The Phosphoylation process of Oxidative Phosphorylation works as what?
    ATP Synthase
  52. Collection of protein and molecules on the mitochondria
    Electron Transport Chain
  53. Proteins are mainly _____ pumps.
    • Hydrogen
    • (3 of them)
  54. What happens on the electron transport chain?
    Electrons move down hydrogen chain and activate the pumps and the hydrogen is pumped out the matric to inner membrane space.
  55. What happens when all the hydrogen meet up on the Electron Transport Chain?
    They defuse back in
  56. Where do the electrons come from on the Electron Transport Chain?
    NADH and FADH2
  57. TRUE or FALSE: NADH takes away electrons and starts the process.
    • FALSE.
    • NADH gives off electrons and starts the process.
  58. TRUE or FALSE: FADH2 enters after the first pump and activiate the 2nd and 3rd pump.
  59. Does NADH activate all three pumps?
  60. Hydrogen re-enters the mitochondria matrix through protein called _______
    ATP Synthase
  61. What is the final electron acceptor on the Electron Transport Chain?
  62. What happens when hydrogen moves through ATP Synthase on the Electron Transport Chain?
    ATP Synthase spins and the spinning makes ATP (ADP +Pi)
  63. _______ gives 30-34 ATP
  64. How do you get 34 ATP?
    • Glycolsis - 2NADH
    • Pyruvate Acetyl CoA - 2NADH
    • Kreb Cycle - 6NADH and 2FADH2
    • E- Transport Chain - 6 NADH (10*3=30 ATP) and 2FADH2 (2*2=4 ATP)
  65. What protein fats get broken down into monomers and enter glycolysis or citric acid cycle at different points?
  66. A protein is what?
    An Amino Acid
  67. Fats are an example of:
    Glycerol and Fatty Acids
  68. Carbs are examples of:
  69. Lack of energy
    Anaerobic Metabolism
  70. TRUE or FALSE: Anaerobic Metabolism has a different final electron acceptor that uses something other than oxygen, like E.Coli uses NO3
  71. What two things are in the Substrate Level of Phosphorylation in Anaerobic Metabolism?
    • 1. Glycolis
    • 2. Fermentation
  72. During Glycolysis and Fermentation
    Glycolysis produces pyruvate and it gets Fermentated