MEDA 110 Ch. 7

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  1. Rhabdomyosarcoma
    Malignant tumor of striated or skeletal muscle.
  2. Leiomyofibroma
    Benign tumor of smooth muscle.
  3. Types of Muscle
    • 3 types of muscles:
    • Skeletal (Voluntary or Striated)
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth (Involuntary or Visceral)
  4. Smooth (Involuntary or Visceral) Muscle
    Contraction of these muscles are regulated by hormones and the autonomic nervous system.
  5. Cardiac Muscle
    Autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary vital function.
  6. Skeletal Muscle
    • Consists of individual muscle cells called muscle fibers.
    • These muscle fibers are held together by thin sheets of fibrous connective tissue called fascia.
    • The fascia and the partitions within the muscle extend to form a strong fibrous band of tissue called a tendon.
    • Tendon attaches the muscle to the bone as it becomes continuous with the periosteum of the bone.
  7. Articulation
    Most of our muscles cross at least one joint, attaching to both of the bones forming the articualtion.
  8. Insertion
    The point of attachment of the muscle to the bone it moves is called the insertion.
  9. Buccinator
    Muscle located in the fleshy part of the cheek.
  10. Temporal Muscle
    Located above and near the ear. (Open and close your jaws as if you were biting and chewing a piece of meat).
  11. Masseter
    Located at the angle of the jaw, also raises the mandible and closes the jaw. It is used when biting and chewing.
  12. Sternocleidomastoid or Sternomastoid
    Extends from the sternum upward along the side of the neck to the mastoid process. ( Bend your neck, bringing your chin toward your chest. Now raise your head and turn your head side to side).
  13. Trapezius
    Muscle is a triangular shaped musle that extends across the back of the shoulder, covers the back of the neck, and inserts on the clavicle and scapula.
  14. Latissimus Dorsi
    • Muscle originates from the vertebrae of the lower back, crosses the lower half of the thoracic region, and passes between the humerus and scapula to insert on the anterior surface of the humerus.
    • It forms the posterior border of the axilla.
  15. Pectoralis Major
    • A large, fan shaped muscle that crosses the upper part of the front of the chest.
    • It originates from the sternum and crosses over to the humerus.
    • It forms the anterior border of the axilla.
  16. Deltoid
    • Covers the shoulder joint.
    • One of the muscles used for intramuscular injections.
  17. Biceps Brachii
    Muscle has two heads, both of which originate from the scapula and insert on the radius.
  18. Triceps Brachii
    Muscle has three heads, which originate from the scapula and the humerus and insert onto the olecranon process of the ulna.
  19. Gluteus Maximus
    • Muscle that forms most of the fleshy part of the buttock.
    • Offers support when an individual is standing.
    • Causes the thigh to rotate, or turn.
  20. Gluteus Medius
    • Muscle is a smaller muscle located above the upper outer quadrant of the gluteus maximus muscle.
    • Helps to abduct the thigh, rotating it outward.
    • One of those muscles used for intramuscular injection.
  21. Quadriceps Femoris
    • Has four muscles that make up one large muscle.
    • Rectus Femoris: used as an intramuscular inj. site.
    • Vastus Medialis: Inner side of the femur.
    • Vastus lateralis: Located on the outer side of the femur. Often used as a site for intramuscular inj.
    • Vastus Intermedius: Deep in the center of the thigh.
  22. Hamstring Muscles
    • 3 muscles
    • Biceps femoris: hams
    • Semimembranosus: hams
    • Semitendinosus: hams
    • Responsible for flexing the the leg on the thigh and also extend the thigh.
  23. Gastrocnemius
    • Calf.
    • Plantar flexes the foot.
  24. Tibialis Anterior
    • Front of the leg.
    • Turns the foot inward. And dorsiflexes the foot.
  25. Atrophy
    Wasting away, without development
  26. Contracture
    Abnormal bending of a joint into a fixed position, usually caused by atrophy and shortening of muscle fibers.
  27. Pseudohypertrophic Muscular Dystrophy aka Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
    A form of muscular dystrophy that is characterized by progressive weakness and muscle fiber degeneration without evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue.
  28. Bucc/o
  29. Dys-
    Bad, difficult, painful, disordered.
  30. Leiomy/o
    Smooth muscle.
  31. Troph/o
  32. My/o or Myos/o
  33. Rhabdomy/o
    Striated muscle.
  34. Muscular Dystrophy
    Is a group of genetically transmitted disorders characterized by progressive symmetrical wasting of skeletal muscles.
  35. Polymyositis
    Chronic progressive disease affecting the skeletal muscles.
  36. Strains
    • An injury to the body of the muscle or attachment of the tendon resulting from overstretching, overextension or misuse.
    • Lower back, cervical regions of the spine.
  37. Electromyography
    Process of recording the strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulated by an electric current.
  38. Fibrous Joint
    In a fibrous joint the surfaces of the bones fit closely together and are held together by fibrous connective tissue (suture of a skull).
  39. Cartilaginous Joint
    Bones are connected by cartilage as in the symphysis.
  40. Synovial Joint
    • Bones have a space between them called the joint cavity.
    • Lined with a synovial membrane which secretes a thick lubricating fluid called the synovial fluid.
  41. Bursa
    Locted near some synovial joints are small sacs containing synovial fluid. Each sac called a bursa lubricates the area around the joint where friction is likely to occur.
  42. Ball and Socket Joint
    Allows movement in many directions around a central point.
  43. Supination
    Act of turning the palm up or forward.
  44. Pronation
    Act of turning the palm down or backward.
  45. Circumduction
    Movement of an extremity around in a circualr motion.
  46. Athralgia
    Joint pain.
  47. Articular Cartilage
    Thin layer of cartilage protecting and covering the connecting surfaces of the bones.
  48. Bunion or Hallux Valgus
    Abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe.
  49. Bunionectomy
    Surgical removal of a bunion.
  50. Ganglionectomy
    Surgical removal of a ganglion.
  51. Needle Aspiration
    Insertion of a neddle into a cavity for the purpose of withdrawing fluid.
  52. Sciatica
    Inflammation of the sciatic nerve.
  53. Subluxation
    Incomplete dislocation
  54. Ankyl/o
  55. Ankylosis
    Stiffening of a joint
  56. -desis
    Binding or surgical fusion.
  57. -gram
    record or picture
  58. -graphy
    Process of recording.
  59. Adhesive Capsulitis
    • Shoulder condition chracterized by stiffness of the shoulder, limited shoulder movement, and pain.
    • AKA "frozen shoulder"
  60. Akylosing Spondylitis or Marie-Strumpell disease
    A type of arthritis that affects the vertebral column and causes deformities of the spine.
  61. Ganglion
    Cystic tuomr developing on a tendon, sometimes occuring on the back of the of the wrist.
  62. Gout
    Form of acute arthritis that is chracterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe.
  63. Lyme Disease
    Acute, recurrent, inflammatoy infection transmitted through the bite of an infected deer tick.
  64. Osteoarthritis
    Degenerative joint disease. Most common form of arthritis and results from wear and tear on the joints.
  65. Rheumatoid Arthrhitis
    • Chronic systemic inflammatory disease that affects multiple joints of the body, mainly the small peripheral joints.
    • Women are affected two to three more times than men.
  66. Sprain
    • A sprain is an injuty involving the ligaments that surround and support a joint, caused by a wrenching or twisting motion.
    • Knee, ankle
  67. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    • Chronic inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin, joint, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs.
    • Butterfly rash that appears on both cheeks. The rash is aggravated by exposure to the sun.
  68. Arthrocentesis
    The surgical puncture of a joint with a needle for the purpose of withdrawing fluid for analysis.
  69. Arthrogram
    X-ray of a joint after injection of a contrast medium.
  70. Arthrography
    process of X-raying the inside of a joint after a contrast medium (a substance that makes the inside of the joint visible) has been injected into the joint.
  71. Arthroplasty
    Surgical reconstruction of a joint.
  72. Arthroscopy
    Visualization of the interior of a joint by using an endoscope.
  73. Rheumatoid Factor
    A blood test that measures the prescence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  74. Erythrocyte Sed (sedimentation) Rate or ESR
    A blood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube filled with unclotted blood.
  75. PIP and DIP
    • Proxmal Interphalngeal (Joint)
    • Distal Interphalangeal (Joint)
Card Set:
MEDA 110 Ch. 7
2012-02-29 18:04:57
MEDA 110

MEDA 110 Ch. 7
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