chapter 14

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chapter 14
2012-02-28 00:45:48

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  1. Though the empire was divided after Chinggis Khan's death in 1227, the four __________ or kingdoms that emerged in the struggles for succession ruled most of Asia.
  2. Born Temujin, __________ was elected Khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206.
    Chinggis Khan
  3. The meeting of all of the Mongol chieftains or __________ elected the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
  4. The title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes was __________.
  5. Mongol forces were divided into armies made up of basic fighting units called __________.
  6. The Turkic ruler of Khwarazm, __________ II, attempted to resist the Mongol conquest but failed.
    Muhammad Shah
  7. Chinggis Khan refused to live in the cities of conquered peoples and built a new capital at __________ on the steppes.
  8. __________, the third son of Chinggis Khan, was elected Grand Khan of the Mongols after his father's death.
  9. The __________ was one of the four regional subdivisions of the Mongol empire after the death of Chinggis Khan and covered much of what is today south-central Russia.
    Golden Horde
  10. Chinggis Khan's grandson, __________, was responsible for the invasion of Russia beginning in 1236.
  11. Prince __________ saved the city of Novgorod from the Mongols by submitting to Mongol demands.
    Alexander Nevskii
  12. The princes of Moscow along with other Russian vassals raised an army that defeated the forces of the Golden Horde at the battle of __________.
  13. __________ was the name given to a mythical, rich, and powerful Christian monarch whose kingdom had supposedly been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests.
    Prester John
  14. __________, ruler of the Ilkhan khanate, was responsible for the capture and destruction of Baghdad.
  15. The Mongols were finally defeated in the Middle East by the armies of the __________, a slave dynasty of Egypt.
  16. The commander of the Egyptian forces at the battle of Ain Jalut was __________, who had originally been enslaved by the Mongols.
  17. Hulegu was threatened by his cousin __________, the khan of the Golden Horde who had converted to Islam.
  18. A grandson of Chinggis Khan, __________ was commander of the Mongol forces responsible for the conquest of China and the founder of the Yuan dynasty.
    Kubilai Khan
  19. The Mongol capital in China was located at __________ or Beijing.
  20. The influential wife of Kubilai Khan, __________, promoted the interests of Buddhists in China.
  21. The most famous dramatic work of the Yuan period was the __________, indicative of the continued literary vitality of China during Mongol rule.
    Romance of the West Chamber
  22. Secret religious sects, such as the __________, were dedicated to the overthrow of the Yuan dynasty.
    White Lotus Society
  23. A man from an impoverished peasant family, __________, emerged to found the Ming dynasty.
    Ju Yuanzhang
  24. Leader of Turkic nomads, __________ launched a series of attacks in the 1360s from his base at Samarkand into Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India, and southern Russia.
    Timur-i Lang
  25. During what period did the nomads of central Asia impact the other global civilizations of the Eastern Hemisphere in the postclassical era?
    1200 to 1400
  26. Who was the great leader of the Mongols prior to Chinggis Khan?
    Kabul Khan
  27. In 1206, Chinggis Khan...
    was elected Khagan (supreme ruler) of the Mongol tribes.
  28. Tumens were...
    military units within the Mongol armies.
  29. What favorite tactic on the field of battle was frequently employed by Chinggis Khan's troops?
    pretended flight to draw the enemy out followed by heavy cavalry attacks on the flanks
  30. Karakorum was
    the new capital constructed by Chinggis Khan for his empire.
  31. Following the death of Chinggis Khan, who succeeded him as Khagan of the Mongols?
  32. The time of the Mongol invasion, Russia...
    was divided into numerous petty kingdoms centered on trading cities.
  33. A result of the Mongol invasion, Moscow
    used its position as collector of tribute for the Mongols and the seat of Russian Orthodoxy to emerge as the political leader of Russia.
  34. In addition to the destruction of the Abbasid political capital at Baghdad and the weakening of the Muslim military strength, what significant impact did the Mongol conquest have on the Islamic heartland?
    The destruction of cities from central Asia to the shores of the Mediterranean devastated the focal points of Islamic civilization.
  35. The founder of the Yuan dynasty in China was...
  36. Which of the following was not a method utilized by the Yuan to maintain the separation of Mongols and Chinese?
    • A) Chinese were forbidden to serve at any level of the Mongol administration.
    • B) None of the answers are correct.
    • C) Mongols were forbidden to marry ethnic Chinese.
    • D) Chinese scholars were forbidden to learn the Mongol script.
    • E) Only women from nomadic families were selected for the imperial harem.

  37. In order to reduce the power of the scholar-gentry in China, the Yuan...
    refused to reinstate the examination system for the civil service.
  38. Who was the founder of the Ming dynasty?
    Ju Yuanzhang
  39. The Turkic expansion under Timur-i Lang disrupted all of the following regions except
  40. Which of the following Russian cities was not destroyed in the Mongol invasions of 1236 and 1240?
    • A) Moscow
    • B) Rizan
    • C) All of the listed cities were destroyed.
    • D) Kiev
    • E) Novgorod
  41. Which of the following reforms was not established by Chinggis Khan to provide for a lasting peace in his domains?
    • A) A legal code was promulgated to prevent feuds between Mongol clans.
    • B) Farmers were taxed to support the Mongol courts and military expeditions.
    • C) Chinese and Islamic bureaucrats were strictly banned from service in the Mongol administration.
    • D) Trade routes were made secure for all to traverse.
    • E) A script was devised for the Mongolian language to facilitate keeping records.

  42. Which of the following statements concerning the nomadic society of the Mongols prior to the establishment of the empire is not accurate?
    • A) The Mongols were primarily herders of cattle and horses.
    • B) The Mongols were capable of forming tribal confederations in times of war.
    • C) The basic social unit of the Mongols was the tribe.
    • D) Leaders were elected by the free men of the group.
    • E) Mongol leaders were selected by all free males for as long as they could hold power.

  43. Battle of Kulikova
    Russian army victory over the forces of the Golden Hode; helped break Mongol hold over Russia
  44. Ogedei
    Third son of Chiggis Khan; succeeded Chinggis Khan as khagan of the Mongols following his father's death.
  45. khanates
    Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan
  46. Ming dynasty
    Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
  47. tumens
    Basic fighting units of the Mongol forces; consisted of 10,000 cavalrymen; each unit was further divided into units of 1000, 100, and 10.
  48. Muhammad Shah II
    Turkic ruler of Muslim Khwarazm kingdom; attempted to resist Mongol conquest; conquered in 1220.
  49. Timur-i Lang
    Also known as Tamerlane; leader of Turkic nomads; beginning in 1360's from base at Samarkand, launched series of attacks in Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India, and southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405.
  50. Baibars
    Commander of Mamluk forces at Ain Jalut; originally enslaved by Mongols and sold to Egyptians.
  51. Berke
    A ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mamluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East.
  52. Batu
    Ruler of Golden Horde; one of Chingis Khan's grandsons; responsible for invasion of Russia beginning in 1236.
  53. khagan
    Title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
  54. Tatu
    Mongol capital of Yuan dynasty; present day Beijing
  55. Chabi
    Influencial wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted interest of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of the Chinese.
  56. Kubilai Khan
    Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established Sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271.
  57. White Lotus Society
    Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in Chinal typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule.
  58. Ju Yuanzhang
    Chinese peasant who led successful revol against Yuan in 124th century; founded Ming dynasty.
  59. Prester John
    Name given to a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom had supposedly bee cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; Chinggis Khan was originally believed to be this mythical ruler.
  60. Kuriltai
    Meeting of all Mongol chieftains at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected.
  61. Karakorum
    Capital of the Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan.
  62. Golden Horde
    One of the four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Chinggis Khan's death, originally ruled by his grandson Batu; territory covered much of what is today south central Russia.
  63. Genghis Khan's chief role in the Mongols' histry was...
    to unite the Mongol tribes.

    Although Genghis Khan was a skilled war leader in his own right, he did not personally lead armies into Russia or against the Abbasids, and the Mongols never conquered western Europe. It was by uniting the Mongol tries that Genghis Khan truly changed the course of history.
  64. The Mongols were skilled in ___________, but not in _______.
    warfare, nation building.

    During the 1200's. Mongol armies conquered several lands, including Russia and parts of China, Central Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. They succeeded largely thanks to their talents as cavalrymen, their skills in archery, and their ability to adopt advanced military technology and techniques from peoples they had defeated. However, by 1260 Mongol unity collapsed with the death of Khan Mongke, and civil war ensued. During the late 1300's, the Ottoman Turks gained control of many lands the Mongols once ruled.
  65. The most effective Mongol troops were...
    cavalry armed with bows and arrows.

    Mongol armies excelled on horseback and in archery. The Mongols as well as their horse both enjoyed great endurance.
  66. Why were the Mongols successful at conquest?
    They adopted advanced technology quickly, They organized their armies effectively, and They were talented cavalrymen.

    Although the Mongols did not have the largest army of all time, they did adopt advanced technology from conquered peoples, organized their armies into tightly knit military units, and were excellent horsemen.
  67. Which of the following territoies did the Mongols NOT conquer?

    A) Russia
    B) Ukraine
    C) Bulgaria
    D) Romania
    E) France
    France: The Mongols conquered parts of eastern Europe but their ruler never extended as far west as France. By the 1240's, when they were in reach of western Europe, they were overextended, far from home, and fighting on unfamiliar terrain.
  68. What fate did Russia experience at the hands of the Mongols?
    It was ruled by the Mongols for two centuries
  69. In the 9th century, the Tang Dynasty was weakened by considerable conflicts between...
    Buddhism & Confucianism
  70. The establishments of the Mongol Empire had all of the following consequences except:

    A) the reopening and extension of the Silk Road
    B) the demand for European products such as wool, porcelain, sugar, spices, and coffee
    C) the strengthening of maritime trade in the South China Sea
    D) the rise of the aristocracy in Russia
    E) the diffusion of gunpowder technology
    B) the demand for European products such as wool, porcelain, sugar, spices, and coffee.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Which of the following became the tsars of Russia after the Mongols were driven out?

    A) princes of Kiev
    B) the khans of the Golden Horde
    C) princes of Novogrod
    D) the priests of the Aryans
    E) princes of Moscow
    E) the princes of Moscow
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. When the Mongols came to Chinese territory in the 1220's, they found...
    a much smaller Song dynasty that had lost much of their territory to other empires.
  73. Describe the Mongols' cultural adaptation.
    They tended to adopt the religions of the people they had defeated.

    The Mongols often chose to follow Buddhism or Islam, both of which had originated in areas they had conquered. They used the Turkic language, as their written script.
  74. The Mongols' economic policy included...
    maintaining trade along the Silk Road

    Encouraging economic exchange, the Mongols allowed trade to continue along the Silk Road, which ran through Central Asia. They were not known for encouraging maritime trade, though.
  75. Which of the following is true of the Mongol state?

    A) The Mongols adopted Uigher as their written script.
    B) The Mongols established one of the most efficient postal systems in premodern history.
    C) The Mongols made use of paper currency.
    D) all of the above
    E) none of the above
    D) all of the above.

    In the 1200's, the Mongols maintained a high level of administrative skill as rulers of a vast empire. They facilitated communications by use of the language Uighur and an efficient postal system, and printed paper currency for economic transaction.
  76. Why did the Mongol Empire break up?
    The Mongols were unable to administer such a large territory effectively.
  77. Genghis Khan did not conquer _______ in his lifetime.