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  1. What are the two types of cells? What are the differences between the two?
    • Prokaryotes
    • (before nucleus) lack well defined organelles including bacteria
    • Eukaryotes
    • animals, plants, fungi, and protozoa
    • -larger and more complex, contain differentiated structures.
  2. What are the 3 shapes
    • Cocci (spherical)
    • Bacilli (rodlike)
    • Spirochetes
  3. Describe Eukaryotic Cells
    • Enveloe structures:
    • plasma membrane:
    • bilayer lipoprotein
    • transport
    • Cell wall: gives shape and strength
    • motility organelles: cilia flagella
  4. Gram Positive Cell Wall
    • Thick peptidoglycan (murein):
    • Penicillin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis
    • Murein layer - glycan chains with alternating n acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG) and N-acetyl-D-muramic acid (NAM)
    • teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid
  5. Gram Positive Cell Wall
    • Gram negative: two layers in cell wall
    • thin inner peptidoglycan layer;
    • outer membrane-: barrier, sieve, attachment
    • Proteins, phospholipids, lipopolysaccharides
    • lipopolysaccharides
    • -antigenic O-specific polysaccharide
    • -core polysaccharide
    • -endotoxin (inner lipid A)
    • periplasmic space: between inner and outer membrane
  6. Pleomorphic
    variation in size and shape
  7. cocci
    singles, pairs, chains
  8. diplococcus
    pair of cells
  9. tetrad
    four cocci in a square arrangement
  10. staphylococcus
    grapelike cluster
  11. bacilli
  12. coccobacilli
    "fat" small bacilli
  13. spirochetes
    spiral, coiled
  14. Acid-Fast Cell Wall
    • Mycobacterium and Nocardia:
    • gram positive cell wall
    • waxy layer of glycolipids and fatty acids
    • (mycolic acid) bound to the outside:
    • Forms strong hydrophobic lipid shell
    • Effects permeability and staining
    • Stain with Carbolfuchsin
  15. No Cell Wall
    • Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma:
    • Contain sterols in cell membrane
    • lack rigidity

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2012-02-28 02:40:18

Microsection 1
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