Ethics Exam II

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  1. Euthyphro Paradox
    a concept of Socrates which attempts to answer "What is holy?" and brings into question issues of divinity as the source of moral authority
  2. Conceptual Truth
    a self-evident or definitional truth, human nature:something said to be either innate in humans or common to all humans
  3. Teleology
    Aristotle's concept of a purpose-driven universe or design in nature
  4. Natural Purpose
    the idea that a human being has a purpose and this purpose defines nature and unnatural human acts
  5. Deism
    the idea that god created the universe but plays no active part in the course of its history
  6. Empirical Truth
    a truth of scientific/factual discovery
  7. Natural Law
    states right/wrong is defined by the concepts of natural and unnatural actions
  8. Agnostic
    the belief that it is unknown (and unknowable) whether or not god exists
  9. Divine Command
    states that right/wrong action is defined as what god commands vs. what he condemns
  10. Without Belief in God
    people are less likely to act virtuously
  11. Fear of Punishment
    doesn't necessarily mean it causes right or wrong actions
  12. Objections to Natural Law Theory
    What is considered 'Natural'?
  13. Is every natural act considered moral?
  14. Psychological Egoism
    the theory about human behavior that states Human beings act in self-serving ways
  15. Ethical Egoism
    theory about morality that states human beings should act in self serving ways
  16. Altruism
    the act of putting others needs above your own; acting selflessly
  17. Reasons why people belive Physchological Egoism
    • 1. It explains vanity
    • 2. It's a simple explanation
  18. Objection against Altruism
    there is no such thing as a selfless act
  19. Reply to Objection of Altruism
    We do not do deeds for the gratification. We do the act and then if there is happiness we don't realize the gratification until after the fact
  20. Simple Subjectivism
    When someone says something is good or bad they are approving or disapproving it, nothing more
  21. Objection to Simple subjectivism
    it can not account for disagreements
  22. Simple Subjectivism: What measures morality?
    personal honesty
  23. Emotivism
    • moral language is not fact-stating
    • it is not used to convey information
    • it is used to express an attitude towards something
  24. Objection of Emotivism
    moral statements are different (more important/contain more value) than other statements such as likes or dislikes
  25. Emotivism: What makes ethical claims more valuable?
    They are based on reason
  26. What reasons must Moral Judgements be supported on?
    • Good reasons
    • 1. relevant
    • 2. True
  27. John Rawls and the Veil of Ignorance
    point of exsistence before any of our defining attributes
  28. Rawls basic principles: Things We Know
    • 1. We will become a human being
    • 2. we will be subject to various forms of harm
    • 3. We have basic needs for our exsistence
  29. Rawls basic Principles: Things We Don't Know
    We'll have no knowledge of things considered to define us as individuals
  30. Original Position
    the point of ignorance from which we start
  31. Equality Principle
    each person has equal access (rights) to maximum liberty with the same amount of liberty for everyone else
  32. Difference Principle
    any inequality is permissable only to the extent that it is to everyone's advantage and that it arises out of conditions of equal opportunity
  33. Who Founded Utilitarianism?
    Jeremy Bentham
  34. Who was Jeremy Benthams Student?
    John Stuart Mill
  35. Benthams Utilitariamism Argument
    People don't follow rules to please God, the follow rules to instill pleasure in the world.
  36. For Bentham, what determines happiness?
    Relationship between pleasure and pain
  37. Principle of Utility
    • when placed with options about action and social policies we are to pick the option that will benefit everyone
    • each persons happiness is of equal value
  38. Benthams Attempt to Quantify Pleasure
    to decide what is the correct action to take, we must quantify our pleasure
  39. How to Quantify Pleasure
    • 1. Intensity
    • 2. Duration
    • 3. Certainty (of occurance)
    • 4. Proximity (how soon will it occur)
    • 5. Fecundity (how many more pleasures will be produced)
    • 6. Purity (how free from pain is it)
    • 7. Extent (how many people experience this pleasure)
  40. Objections to Bentham's Argument
    • Overlooks quality of an experience
    • You can't compare different experiences because there are different pleasures
  41. Mill's objections to Bentham's Argument
    • Attempt to quantify pleasure is impractical
    • We would spend more hours quantifying than acting
    • We should Measure quantity not quality
  42. According to Mill, what should we use as our means to determine right or wrong action?
    Tradition because human laws are set to ensure the best outcome for everyone
  43. How does mills feel we should measure pleasure?
    by quality, the richness of the pleasure
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Ethics Exam II
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