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What is the foundation of mass communication?
Print media. The origins lie in the "typographical era" of the Middle Ages.
Who is Marshall McLuhan?
- A communication scholar who claim that reading printed words has changed the way we think.
- McLuhan wrote Understanding Media and The Gutenberg Galaxy.
- He is most famous for creating the "global village" metaphor regarding electronic media.
What does the format of the printed word help us to do?
Print helps us develop solid critical-thinking skills and teaches us how to build arguments using logic.
What are the most important functions of Print Media?
- 1. Transmission of culture
- 2. The diffusion of ideas and knowledge
- 3. Entertainment
Can print media teach both knowledge and values?
- Yes. Often kowledge & values are intertwined.
- Textbooks can even transfer values by what they omit vs what they contain.
How does reading primarily for entertainment impart knowlege on the reader at the same time?
- Great literature can elevate our senses and make us feel new emotions as memorable characters come to life.
- Readers that don't know much about how our legal system works, can learn a lot when reading legal thrillers or military action stories.
What were the beginning developments of books?
- 3500 BCE - marks pressed into wet clay tablets (Sumerians).
- 2500 BCE - animal skins were being used to publish books in scroll form (Asians).
- 1800 BCE - papyrus paper in scroll form (Egyptians).
What replaced the scroll form?
- Between 1st century BCE and 6th century CE, the Codex or manuscript replaced scroll form.
- Made up of bound individual pages.
- Established the modern book form.
When and where was the Western world's first mechanical printing press take place? Who invented it?
- In 1455 in Germany, Johannes Gutenberg.
- Gutenberg's invention employed oil-based ink on paper using a converted wine press.
Who are the Monastic Scribes?
- The scribes were trained monks who worked in writing rooms called monastic scriptoria. Scribes copied religious & classical works.
- This promoted the ideas of the Catholic Church.
What is the Gutenberg Bible?
The Gutenberg Bible, aka forty-two-line Bible, was published in 1455 and was considered the first mechanically printed works in Europe.
What role did the printing press have on Renaissance culture?
- The printing press played a role in
- 1. the Growth of the Renaissance culture,
- 2. the sharing of scientific discoveries,
- 3. the spread of religious beliefs,
- 4. helped increase literacy among the populace
- 5. laid the foundation for the rise of mass communication in the Western world.
Did illiteracy greatly reduce right after the printing press was invented?
- No. Large numbers of Europeans and Americans remained illiterate until the 19th century.
- Education was not available to everyone, only the wealthy, until th 1800s.
- Public education was increased in the early 1800s.
What was the first textbook published in America?
- The New England Primer published in 1690 by Benjamin Harris.
- The textbook introduced children to the English Alphabet, the rudiments of reading, and basic Christian religious values.
What was the "Blue Back Speller"?
- Noah Webster's book called A Grammatical Institute of the English Language (1783).
- Written as a reaction to all the imported textbooks from England which taught English cultural values.
- Provided tutorials on language, religion, morals, & domestic economy.
What were the McGuffey Readers?
- The standard reading books for schoolchildren throughout the 19th century.
- First Published in 1836
What are two ways to make money publishing books?
- 1. Publish a book that many people will want to buy and read, which usually means books that will entertain.
- 2. Make the book affordable enough for many people to buy.
- Dime novels and mass-market paperbacks satisfied both criteria.
When were the dime novels introduced?
- 1860 by Irwin P. Beadle & Company. 1st paperback book form.
- First one was written by Ann S. Stephens, called Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter
- Within a year of publication, Malaeska sold more than 300,000 copies.
- The 1870s saw an expansion of dime novels to include melodramatic fiction, adventures, detective stories, romances, and rags-to-riches tales.
When were mass-market paperbacks introduced?
- In 1939 by Robert de Graff's company Pocket Books.
- Pocket Books, kangaroo mascot
- Plastic-laminated books priced at 25 cents each.
- Small enough to be carried in a back pocket.
Who was the "paperback generation"?
Baby boomers who were the students of the 50's and 60's.
What is Print-on-Demand?
- Print-on-demand (POD) was a development in printing that began in the late 90's.
- It employs low-cost technology to enable writers to publish using printers who specialize in the technology & to have their paperback books avail online or some bookstores.
- High-quality laser printing & binding machines can print a book in a few minutes at a fraction of the cost.
What are 3 major trends affecting the book industry?
- 1. Mergers & consolidation enable publishers to reduce operating costs & thus increase profit margins.
- 2. Book-publishing industry is intertwined with the global media & the entertainment industry
- 3. Book sales & distribution are being transformed by the emergence of online booksellers, electronic books, and on-demand printing.
What are 3 of the functions of newspapers?
- 1. Surveillance - to inform the public of important events taking place.
- 2. Correlation - provides interpretations and meanings of events & issues.
- 3. Entertainment
What are the 3 national newspapers that has readership throughout the country?
- 1. New York Times - known as the paper of record, as well as the "Old Gray Lady". Offers strong coverage of international events and issues.
- 2. USA Today - offers a strong mix of general-interest news packaged in well-designed, colorful, easy-to-read sections. Transformed the look and feel of most newspapers in the U.S. Took 10 yrs to become profitable.
- 3. Wall Street Journal - the nation's leading newspaper covering business and finance.
What was the first English-language newspaper published in the U.S.?
- Publick Occurences, Both Foreign and Domestick.It was first published on September 25, 1690 in Boston.
What were the first 2 forms of newspapers?
- Political papers and Commercial papers.
- Physically small, usually no more than 4 pages, and 10"x15" in size.
- Sold by subscription, about $8 to $10/yr = about $0.06 per issue.
- Examples of names: Boston Daily Advertiser, the Daily Mercantile Advertiser, Federal Gazette, Federal Republican, etc.
What caused newspapers to start having a broadsheet format?
Partly a result of British tax law placing a tax on the number of pages contained. Most colonies were subject to this tax.
What is the "golden age" for newspapers?
- From the 1830's to 1930 newspapers exerted their greatest influence on American society.
- In 1830, the technological development of steam-powered printing presses greatly increased mass printing & circulation.
- In 1930, the arrival of electronic mass communication; radio & t.v. decreased demand & circulation.
What was the New York Sun and who published it?
- The first penny press, a daily newspaper sold each day for one cent. News for the masses.
- Published in September 1833 by Benjamin Day.
How much newspaper revenue comes from advertising?