CTVA Ch. 4

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JenKae
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138279
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CTVA Ch. 4
Updated:
2012-02-28 00:14:44
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Mass Communication Print Media
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Print Media: Books, Newspapers, & Magazines
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  1. What is the foundation of mass communication?
    Print media. The origins lie in the "typographical era" of the Middle Ages.
  2. Who is Marshall McLuhan?
    • A communication scholar who claim that reading printed words has changed the way we think.
    • McLuhan wrote Understanding Media and The Gutenberg Galaxy.
    • He is most famous for creating the "global village" metaphor regarding electronic media.
  3. What does the format of the printed word help us to do?
    Print helps us develop solid critical-thinking skills and teaches us how to build arguments using logic.
  4. What are the most important functions of Print Media?
    • 1. Transmission of culture
    • 2. The diffusion of ideas and knowledge
    • 3. Entertainment
  5. Can print media teach both knowledge and values?
    • Yes. Often kowledge & values are intertwined.
    • Textbooks can even transfer values by what they omit vs what they contain.
  6. How does reading primarily for entertainment impart knowlege on the reader at the same time?
    • Great literature can elevate our senses and make us feel new emotions as memorable characters come to life.
    • Readers that don't know much about how our legal system works, can learn a lot when reading legal thrillers or military action stories.
  7. What were the beginning developments of books?
    • 3500 BCE - marks pressed into wet clay tablets (Sumerians).
    • 2500 BCE - animal skins were being used to publish books in scroll form (Asians).
    • 1800 BCE - papyrus paper in scroll form (Egyptians).
  8. What replaced the scroll form?
    • Between 1st century BCE and 6th century CE, the Codex or manuscript replaced scroll form.
    • Made up of bound individual pages.
    • Established the modern book form.
  9. When and where was the Western world's first mechanical printing press take place? Who invented it?
    • In 1455 in Germany, Johannes Gutenberg.
    • Gutenberg's invention employed oil-based ink on paper using a converted wine press.
  10. Who are the Monastic Scribes?
    • The scribes were trained monks who worked in writing rooms called monastic scriptoria. Scribes copied religious & classical works.
    • This promoted the ideas of the Catholic Church.
  11. What is the Gutenberg Bible?
    The Gutenberg Bible, aka forty-two-line Bible, was published in 1455 and was considered the first mechanically printed works in Europe.
  12. What role did the printing press have on Renaissance culture?
    • The printing press played a role in
    • 1. the Growth of the Renaissance culture,
    • 2. the sharing of scientific discoveries,
    • 3. the spread of religious beliefs,
    • 4. helped increase literacy among the populace
    • 5. laid the foundation for the rise of mass communication in the Western world.
  13. Did illiteracy greatly reduce right after the printing press was invented?
    • No. Large numbers of Europeans and Americans remained illiterate until the 19th century.
    • Education was not available to everyone, only the wealthy, until th 1800s.
    • Public education was increased in the early 1800s.
  14. What was the first textbook published in America?
    • The New England Primer published in 1690 by Benjamin Harris.
    • The textbook introduced children to the English Alphabet, the rudiments of reading, and basic Christian religious values.
  15. What was the "Blue Back Speller"?
    • Noah Webster's book called A Grammatical Institute of the English Language (1783).
    • Written as a reaction to all the imported textbooks from England which taught English cultural values.
    • Provided tutorials on language, religion, morals, & domestic economy.
  16. What were the McGuffey Readers?
    • The standard reading books for schoolchildren throughout the 19th century.
    • First Published in 1836
  17. What are two ways to make money publishing books?
    • 1. Publish a book that many people will want to buy and read, which usually means books that will entertain.
    • 2. Make the book affordable enough for many people to buy.
    • Dime novels and mass-market paperbacks satisfied both criteria.
  18. When were the dime novels introduced?
    • 1860 by Irwin P. Beadle & Company. 1st paperback book form.
    • First one was written by Ann S. Stephens, called Malaeska: The Indian Wife of the White Hunter
    • Within a year of publication, Malaeska sold more than 300,000 copies.
    • The 1870s saw an expansion of dime novels to include melodramatic fiction, adventures, detective stories, romances, and rags-to-riches tales.
  19. When were mass-market paperbacks introduced?
    • In 1939 by Robert de Graff's company Pocket Books.
    • Pocket Books, kangaroo mascot
    • Plastic-laminated books priced at 25 cents each.
    • Small enough to be carried in a back pocket.
  20. Who was the "paperback generation"?
    Baby boomers who were the students of the 50's and 60's.
  21. What is Print-on-Demand?
    • Print-on-demand (POD) was a development in printing that began in the late 90's.
    • It employs low-cost technology to enable writers to publish using printers who specialize in the technology & to have their paperback books avail online or some bookstores.
    • High-quality laser printing & binding machines can print a book in a few minutes at a fraction of the cost.
  22. What are 3 major trends affecting the book industry?
    • 1. Mergers & consolidation enable publishers to reduce operating costs & thus increase profit margins.
    • 2. Book-publishing industry is intertwined with the global media & the entertainment industry
    • 3. Book sales & distribution are being transformed by the emergence of online booksellers, electronic books, and on-demand printing.
  23. What are 3 of the functions of newspapers?
    • 1. Surveillance - to inform the public of important events taking place.
    • 2. Correlation - provides interpretations and meanings of events & issues.
    • 3. Entertainment
  24. What are the 3 national newspapers that has readership throughout the country?
    • 1. New York Times - known as the paper of record, as well as the "Old Gray Lady". Offers strong coverage of international events and issues.
    • 2. USA Today - offers a strong mix of general-interest news packaged in well-designed, colorful, easy-to-read sections. Transformed the look and feel of most newspapers in the U.S. Took 10 yrs to become profitable.
    • 3. Wall Street Journal - the nation's leading newspaper covering business and finance.
  25. What was the first English-language newspaper published in the U.S.?
    • Publick Occurences, Both Foreign and Domestick.
    • It was first published on September 25, 1690 in Boston.
  26. What were the first 2 forms of newspapers?
    • Political papers and Commercial papers.
    • Physically small, usually no more than 4 pages, and 10"x15" in size.
    • Sold by subscription, about $8 to $10/yr = about $0.06 per issue.
    • Examples of names: Boston Daily Advertiser, the Daily Mercantile Advertiser, Federal Gazette, Federal Republican, etc.
  27. What caused newspapers to start having a broadsheet format?
    Partly a result of British tax law placing a tax on the number of pages contained. Most colonies were subject to this tax.
  28. What is the "golden age" for newspapers?
    • From the 1830's to 1930 newspapers exerted their greatest influence on American society.
    • In 1830, the technological development of steam-powered printing presses greatly increased mass printing & circulation.
    • In 1930, the arrival of electronic mass communication; radio & t.v. decreased demand & circulation.
  29. What was the New York Sun and who published it?
    • The first penny press, a daily newspaper sold each day for one cent. News for the masses.
    • Published in September 1833 by Benjamin Day.
  30. How much newspaper revenue comes from advertising?
    Approximately 70%.

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