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What role does cultre play as we attempt to define what is normal and abnormal?
Cultures constrain what is normal and not normal
What is Cultural Relativism?
Suggests that there is no absolute, definitive answer to what is normal and not normal
Who was Dr. Cartwright? What did he tell us about our definitions of normal?
1851 - Assesment of slaves; Drapetomania (abnormal desire for freedom) and Dysaesheia Aethiopis ( abnormal desire to not want to work for the salve owner)
What factors do we take into account as we try to establish a definition of abnormality?
How as Homosexuality been treated in the DSM over the various editions of the DSM? What caused this change?
Was a perversion, then possibly a perversion, now its normal. Culture and science change this persepctive
What are the assumptions of the scientific model of the universe? What type of "explanations" does it permit?
Universe is natural, physical, ordered and determined
According to Ancient Chineese, what caused mental illness?
Distortion of energy
According to the early greeks, what was the cause of hysteria?
A Wondering uterus
According to Hippocrates, what is the source of mental health and illness?
The unbalance of fluids in the body
How were the patients treated and what conditions did they live in the Hospital of Mary Bethlehem?
Who was Dortha Dix? What role did she play in the treatment of the mentally ill?
She is a 40yo school teacher who developed issylums to treat and care for the mentally ill
What is general peresis?
The name of a disease giving of people who have syphyllis
Charlotten - Made use of hypnosis to heal people
French man who helped reform issylums in france
Early investagtor of the use of hypnosis
Who is the father of modern psychology?
Who is involved in Behavioral Theory
Pvolov, Thorndike, and Watson
Who is involved in Cognative Psychology
Albert Bandura, Albert Ellis, and Aaron beck
What single factor and the biggest impact on the decrease in the number of hospitalized mental patients between 1650 and 2000
Drugs therapy / Anti Psychotic
Behavioral Theory when comes to mental illness
You have to learn to be normal and learn to be abnormal
Cognitive Theory in terms of mental illness
Caused by faulty thinking. To get better you must change the way you think
Family Systems Theory in terms of mental illness
Faulty rules and roles in the family cause mental illness. To fix you must change the rules and roles in the house
Content vs Process
- Content - Is your conscious mind
- Process - Is your unconscious mind
- Process drive content
- Unconscious drives Conscious
Classical vs Operant Conditioning
- Classical - Pavlov; Reflex conditioning
- Operant - Skinner; Learning by reinforcement
What is reflective listening?
When you repeat what someone just said to you.
Part of the Humanistic Theory
Enmeshment vs Triangulation
Family System Theory
- Enmeshment - Everything is together. No seperate lives
- Triangulation - When 2 people have a conflict and they get someone else involved.
A Biogenic Model
When mental illness is caused by genetics, brain structures, and brain processes
A Psychogenic Model
When mental illness is caused by an experience in life
An Interactive Model
When mental illness is caused by a combination of Biogenic model and psychogenic model
Connects left and right side of the brain
Relay station of the brain; Signals go in the Thalamus and sends elsewhere
Involved in fine motor control and reflex conditioning
Involned in the formation of memories
Motor movement and Brocas Area (Lauguage)
Sensory Cortex (being touched) and object recognition)
Auditory Crotex and Wernikes area ( Language Comprehension)
What do we mean when we talk about higher and lower conters of the brain?
- Higher - Cerebral thinking and planning
- Lower - Vegatative (Keeps us alive)
Involved in eating drinking and sexual behavior
What is the endocerine system
System of ducless glands that add hormones to the brain
Puoches @ the end of the terminal branches that contain neurotransmitters
Pointy things attached to the soma
Communicate one neuron with another
Master Gland that communicates with the hypothalmus
Difference between monozygotic and diztgotic twins
- Monozygotic Twin - 1 egg, 1 sperm, and identical twins
- Dizygotic Twins - 2 eggs, 2 sperm, 2 babies
For freud, what is the most primitive part of the personality?
Eros vs Thantos
- Eros - Life and sex instinct
- Thanatos - Death and destruction instinct
One displays the opposite of what he/she is truly feeling
When the person moves the threatening material into the preconscious mind
The person, without awareness moves threatening material from conscious awareness into the unconscious mind
When someone transforms themselves into an identity that takes on the characteristics of the person who triggers the extreme anxiety (abusive father)
The person redirects their actions away from one object to another
When a person retreats to an earlier stage of development that is experienced to be "Safer"
- Oral Stage- 0-18mo
- Anal Stage- 18mo - 3yr
- Phallic Stage- 3-6yr
- Latency Stage- 6-12yr
- Genital Stage- 12 and up
Law and Effect
Thorndike - We repeat things that feel good and do not repeat things that feel bad
Primary vs Secondary Reinforcer
- Primary - Natural
- Secondary - Learned
Monoamine , oxidase inhibitors, tricyclies and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used to treat
Valium, Librium, and Serax are used to treat