Anatomy

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Author:
leti5637
ID:
138317
Filename:
Anatomy
Updated:
2012-02-28 02:40:53
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Integumentary System skin
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Description:
Unit 2 Lecture 1
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  1. Functions of the skin
    • Protection
    • Body Temp regulation
    • Blood Reservoir (Kept at surface of skin)
    • Excretion
    • Sensation
    • Vitamin D synthesis
  2. What happens w skin when dealing w cold
    • 1. Constrict blood vessels (less blood to surface)
    • 2. Contraction of dermal muscles (->heat; goosebumps)
  3. What happens w skin when ealing w heat?
    • 1. Dilate blood vessels (More blood to surface)
    • 2. Sweat (evaporative heaat loss)
  4. Cutaneous membrane =
    Epidermis + Dermis
  5. Subcutaneous layer=
    Hypodermis
  6. Skin broken into 3 types
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis
  7. Epidermis
    • 1. Avascular
    • 2. 90% are keratinocytes
    • a) Filled w keratin
    • b) Waxy waterproofing
    • 3. Deepest layer divides, pushing older cells up (away from blood)
    • 4. 5 layers in epidermis ( 4 in thin skin)
    • 5.Forms hair, nails, and glands
    • 6. Melanocytes found here (skin color) PIGMENT PRODUCING CELLS
  8. keratinyced cells are
    • waxy, watery substance protecting skin.
    • Dead skin
  9. Epitherleal tissue dies off to become?
    • Hair
    • Nails
  10. Skin color result from?
    • Carotene- fruits and veggies/
    • a)Yellow orange color

    • Blood-
    • a) dilation constriction
    • b) de-oxygentated (cyanosis)

    • Melanocytes
    • a)Same # in all racces
  11. Papillary Layer
    • 1. Superficial layer
    • 2. Areolar (loose) CT
    • 3. Form Dermal Papilae to fingerprint.
    • 4. Capillary loops/ tactile receptors.
  12. Dermis made of which two layers?
    • Papillary
    • Reticular
  13. Reticular Layer
    • 1) Dense Irregular CT
    • 2) Majority of dermis
    • 3) Location of most organs
  14. Hypodermis
    • 1. Adipose connective tissue
    • 2. Connects skin to organs
    • 3. Varying amount of fat.
    • 4. Subcutaneous layer = superficial fascia
  15. Organs of the skin
    • 1. Glands
    • 2. Hair
    • 3. Smooth Muscle
    • 4. Sensory Receptors
  16. Glands of the skin
    • Oil Glands
    • Sweat Glands
  17. Oil Glands
    • a) Sebaceous Glands
    • b) activated by hormones
    • c) waterproofing; acne

    Holocrine Mode of Secretion used!
  18. Sweat Glands
    • a) Eccrine Sweat Gland
    • - Watery Sweat
    • - All over body (dense in hand/feet).
    • - Activated by temp. & anxiety.

    • b) Apocrine Sweat Gland
    • - Found in armpit/ genitals
    • - Thich secretion
    • - Smelly

    Merocrine Mode of Secretion used!
  19. Glandular Mode of Secretion

    Merocrine
    • Sweat Glands- Eccrine / apocrine
    • a) Most common
    • b) Secretions in vesicles -> fuse to cell membrane ->deposits prouct outside cell.
    • c) Discharge secretion through EXOCYTOSIS
    • d) Cell Remains intact
  20. Glandular Mode of Secretion

    Apocrine
    • Mammary Glands
    • a) Secretions in vesicles near apical region of cell.
    • b) Discharge by PINCHING OFF APICAL SURFACE OF CELL.
    • c) Basal cell region remains intact.
  21. Glandular Mode of Secretion

    Holocrine
    • Sebaceous Glands
    • a) Secretions in vesicles fill cell cytoplasm.
    • b) Discharge secretion through CELL LYSIS
    • c) Cell dies (only found in stratified tissue)
  22. Hair
    • 1. Composed of epithelial cells from epidermis.
    • 2. Only living cells at ''bulb'' of hair.
    • 3. Hair mainly dead cells.
    • 4. Smooth muscle attached to hair follicle.
  23. Arrector Pili Muscle
    • 1. Composed of smooth muscle
    • 2. Activated by cold and nerves.
    • 3.
  24. Aging in the Integument

    Fewer Melanocytes
    • a) Pale skin
    • b) Reduced tolerance for sun exposure.
  25. Aging in the Integument

    Dry Epidermis
    Reduction in sebaceous and sweat gland activity.
  26. Aging in the Integument

    Thin Epidermis
    • a) Slow repairs
    • b) Decreased vitamin D production
    • c) Reduced number of Langerhans cells
  27. Aging in the Integument

    Reduced Sweat Gland Activity
    Tendency to overheat
  28. Aging in the Integument

    Thin Dermis
    Sagging and wrinkling due to fiber loss
  29. Aging in the Integument

    Reduced Blood Supply
    • a) Slow hhealing
    • b) Reduced ability to lose heat
  30. Aging in the Integument

    Changes in Distribution of Fat and Hair
    a) Due to reduction and sex hormone levels
  31. Aging in the Integument

    Fewer Active Follicles
    Thinner, sparce hairs.
  32. Vitiligo
    Melanocytes slowly destroyed by white blood cells..

    WBC Mistake them as foreign.

    De-pigmentation occurs in patches.
  33. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • 1) Most Common
    • 2) Arise from deepest cells of epidermis.
    • 3) Slow growing.
    • 4) Rarely metastasizes.
  34. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • 1) 2nd most common
    • 2) Arise from superficial cells of epidermis.
    • flattening = squamous
    • 3) Faster growing
    • 4) Some metastasizes
  35. Melanoma
    • 1) Most Dangerous
    • 2) Arise from melanocytes
    • 3) Survival 90% (if not metastasized)
    • 4) Survival 14% (if widespread metastasis)

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