CLA 233: Ancient Medicine Midterm

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  1. Hippocrates
    • 460 to 370 BCE
    • Father of Western Medicine
    • From Cos
    • Responsible for writing the Theory of the Four Humours and the Hippocratic Corpus, which is still in use today.
  2. Galen
    • 129/31-201/16 CE
    • Physician of Marcus Aurelius
    • Contributed greatly to the understanding of numerous scientific disciplines, including anatomy and physiology.
    • Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by many ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates.
  3. Hippocratic Oath
    • Around 400 BCE.
    • Written by Hippocrates of Cos
    • May be affiliated with the medical school based in Cos, but other possibilitieshave been suggested
    • Taken by physicians and other healthcare professionals swearing to practice medicine ethically
  4. Isocrates
    • 436-388 BCE
    • Probably the most influential rhetorician in Greece and made many contributions to rhetoric and education through his teaching and written works.
    • Sources and Scope: Aeginetan Speech, where he discussed a man who fell ill, and he stayed to nurse him back to health.
    • " I would much prefer to die than to see him perish before his fated day for lack of a friend to nurse him.
  5. Demography
    • Sources and Pattern of Disease
    • Age: 20-30 yrs.
    • Location: Few cities had a population over 6,000; Rome of 1st c. CE: ~1,000,000.
    • Diet: Diets depended on the grain supply, and in some instances this is linked to disease.
  6. Age
    • In reference to demography.
    • Life span in Antiquity: 20-30 yrs.
    • Sources and Pattern of Disease
    • Disease common to old age are mentioned less frequently
    • Mimnermus refers to old age as "painful", stating "so wretched has the gods made Old Age!"
  7. Bad Air
    • 'Cultural' Components of Medical Explanation
    • There is a difference in health, in reference to winds.
    • Discussed in detail in Airs, Waters, Places
  8. Phthisis
    • Greek word for 'tuberculosis'
    • Phthisis is a Greek term for consumption
    • 'Cultural' Component of Medical Explanation
    • Around 460 BCE,Hippocrates identified phthisis as the most widespread disease of the times involving coughing up blood and fever, which was almost always fatal .
  9. Pyretoi
    • 'Cultural Component of Medical Explanation
    • Greek word for 'Fevers'
  10. Evil Eye
    • Another source of disease in Antiquity
    • 'Cultural' Component of Medical Explanation
    • Ovid Metamorphoses
    • A old woman who is being taken over by the "Evil Eye"
  11. Homer
    • ca. 8th Century BCE
    • Author of the Iliad and the Odyssey
    • Before Hippocrates
    • Homeric works derive from an oral poetic tradition
    • Apollo's plague and the concept of the Healer from the Iliad
  12. Philoctetes
    • Play written by Sophocles c. 409 BCE
    • Before Hippocrates
    • A festering wound, this performance is example of pain
    • Ibeg you, if you have a sword ready to hand, strike at my ankle—cut it off now!
  13. Physikos
    • Greek term
    • ‘natural philosopher’ or ‘student of nature’
    • Before Hippocrates
    • Difficult, fragmentary material
    • Reconstruction of ideas, while fruitful, is always tenuous.
  14. Parmenides
    • 515-450 BCE
    • ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea
    • Founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy
    • Before Hippocrates
    • Known as an iatromantis (doctor-prophet)
    • - Physicians became officials in a religious association
  15. Iatromantis
    • Greek word for Doctor -Prophet
    • Before Hippocrates
    • Peter Kingsley, "physicians becoming officials in a religious association"
  16. Empedocles
    • 495-435 BCE
    • Before Hippocrates & The Philosophy of Medicine
    • Hippocrates, discussed how he incorporated philosophy into the art of healing
  17. Pharmaka
    • Potions
    • Empedocles
    • Plato: suspicious of drugs, in general "they cannot be simply beneficial"
  18. Democritus
    • 460-370 BCE
    • an Ancient Greek philosopher born in Abdera, Thrace, Greece.
    • Before Hippocrates
    • Many consider him as the "father of modern science"
  19. Four Humors
    • Hippocrates (the nature of Man)
    • Blood, phlegh, black bile, and yellow bile
  20. Four Humors
    Image Upload
  21. Artaxerxes
    • Great King of Persia
    • Sent an Invitation to Hippocrates to come to kingdom, but Hippocrates refused him, since the Persians were enemies with the Greeks.
    • Loyalty STATUS!
  22. The Canon
    • Complement to the Hippocratic Oath
    • No earlier than 4th Century BCE
  23. Tradition in Medicine
    • End of the 5th Century BCE
    • Addresses laymen
    • Place where the author establishes medicine
    • Focuses on Dietetics (food therapy)
    • Tries to give a history to medical science
  24. Barley Cake
    • I know too that the body is affected differently by bread according to the manner in which it is prepared. It differs according as it is made from pure flour or meal with bran, whether it is prepared from winnowed or un-winnowed wheat, whether it is well mixed or poorly mixed, over-baked or under-baked, and countless other points besides.’
    • Eat during the summer to cool the body.
  25. Protagoras
    • 490-420 BCE
    • Suspicious of Sophists
  26. Sophists
    • Protrayed as teaching the art of 'speaking well'
    • made the performance of speaking well a key component of wisdom
  27. Phlegm
    • increases in the Winter.
    • It is the coldest humor.
    • In winter, it was recommended that you eat more, since vomiting may be induced in Winter.
  28. Blood
    • Increases in the Spring.
    • It is warmer (and wet).
    • It is recommended that you drink during this season
  29. Yellow Bile
    (Yellow) Bile increases during the summer.
  30. Black Bile
    • strongest in the autumn.
    • Eat more drier cereaks, and drink less
  31. Airs, Waters, Places
    • The treatise is associated with the School of Cos
    • Dated to the second half of the 5th Century BCE
    • Author same as that of the "Sacred Disease"
    • A thoroughgoing application of humoral medicine
    • Consists of two distinct parts: the first is more ‘medical’ (airs, waters), the second is more ‘geographical’ (places) and cultural.
  32. Tiresias
    • A famous seer
    • Known for his clairvoyance, or his ability to gain information about an object, person, location or physical event through means
    • It seems to be highly desirable that a physician should
    • pay much attention to prognosis
  33. Prognosis
    • A technical treatise intended for physicians; it can be dated to the latter half of the fifth century.
    • The emphasis in treatment is on observation and non-invasive therapeutic methods.
    • A key component in all of this writing remains the
    • attempt to establish medicine as a legitimate discipline
  34. Asclepius
    • God of Medicine and Healing in ancient Greek religion. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts.
    • The rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today.
  35. Pennyroyal
    Flower used in fertility
  36. Dreckapotheke
    Use of animal excrements as treatments
  37. Ethiopian Cumin
    • Disease of women
    • Apply this or excremnt of pigeons as a cataplasm
  38. Black Hellebore
    Melampus of Pylos used hellebore to save the daughters of the king of Argos from a madness, induced by Dionysus, that caused them to run naked through the city, crying, weeping, and screaming.
  39. Peplium
    • breaks flatulence better than black hellebore.
    • Both, however, stop pain, as do many other evacuants
  40. Herodicus of Selymbria
    • Trainer, turned physician
    • Combining exercise and medicine
  41. Kairos
    • Opportunity
    • Aphorisms
  42. Crisis
    • Judgment
    • Aphorisms
  43. Apollo
    Has many roles: God of War, Plagues, and Brings Healing
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CLA 233: Ancient Medicine Midterm
2012-02-28 11:07:46
Ancient Medicine Midterm CLA classics

Identification of terms for Mid-term exam
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