NRS 305

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NRS 305
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2012-02-28 06:50:56
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NRS 305
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Exam 1
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  1. First definition of Wildlife Management
    Aldo Leopold (1933)

    -wildlife management is the art of making the land produce sustainable annual crops of wild game for recreational use
  2. Wildlife
    Population
    Ecosystem
    Community
    wildlife: free-living higher vertebrates (game and nongame)

    population: group of individuals of a single species in a given area

    ecosystem: biotic community & its abiotic environment

    community: association of interacting populations; can be different species
  3. 2 Types of Wildlife Management
    • 1. Custodial
    • - preventative or protective
    • - minimize outside influence

    • 2. Manipulative
    • - does something to population
    • - change can be direct (harvest) or indirect (habitat)
  4. Brief History of Wildlife Management
    • 1. Indigenous Peoples
    • 2. Religious scripts
    • 3. Asia - Kublai Khan
    • - focus on game as a private resource
    • 4. Europe - 1st records as early as 1400s
    • - first incentives for hunting "vermin"
    • - wildlife viewed as a private resource
    • 5. Colonial America
    • - through 1800s: Utilitarian Ethic
    • - wildlife is viewed as a public resource
    • - held in the public trust
  5. Bag Limit
    Market Hunting
    • Bag limit: Number of individuals a hunter may remove during a set time period
    • - can work as a cap or a reducer for the population

    Market hunting: widescale exploitation
  6. Historical Steps in Wildlife Mgmt in the U.S.
    • 1. Restriction of hunting by shortening hunting season
    • - 1850s: first game wardens
    • - 1870s & 80s: market hunting during Industrial Revolution
    • - 1875: first law against market hunting (Arkansas)
    • 2. Restriction of hunting by regulating harvest amount
    • - late 1800s: passenger pigeon & american bison
    • - Early 1900s: Teddy Roosevelt!
    • Utilitarian Ethic --> Preservation Ethic
    • conservation through wise use
    • - Contemporary America: Sustainable harvest
    • - Pelican Island: established by T.R.
    • -1930s: Great Depression (drought)
    • conversion of many wetlands
    • - 1934: Federal Bird Hunting Stamp Act ("Duck Stamp")
    • - 1937: Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act ("Pittman-Robertson")
    • -1940-45: World War 2
    • synthetic fertilizers (DDT)
    • huge push for development and agriculture

    • Environmental Movement
    • - 1962: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
    • - 1969: NEPA
    • EIS
    • - 1972: Clean Water Act
    • *no net loss of wetlands
    • - 1973: ESA
    • - 1985: National Security Act
    • encourages taking land out of production for wildlife habitat or restoration of wetlands
    • - 1993: National Biological Survey
  7. Federal Bird Hunting Stamp Act
    - "Duck Stamp"

    - waterfowl hunting license at federal level

    - most of that money funded waterfowl conservation
  8. Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act
    - "Pittman-Robertson"

    - 10% tax on firearms and ammunition

    - funds dedicated to wildlife management and habitat restoration
  9. Consumptive Uses vs. Nonconsumptive Uses
    • Consumptive: uses a resource (harvest) in a way that it is no longer available to others
    • can still be sustainable but individuals are removed
    • ex.) hunting, fishing, trapping, etc.

    • Nonconsumptive: resource continues to be available, unimpaired
    • ex.) bird watching, hiking, camping, photography, etc.
    • *use groups may not be funding conservation which is why funding is mainly game-focused
  10. History of Wildlife Management Summary
    - goals of wildlife mgmt until the 1900s primarily focused on preserving hunting

    - motivation being that people wanted to exploit wildlife

    • - nongame emphasis did not occur until 1900s
    • not in full force until late 1900s Environmental Movement
  11. Management goals of Contemporary America
    • Goal 1: Manage the exploitation of wildlife so that it is sustainable (a renewable resource)
    • Motive: exploitation

    • Goal 2: Reduce the negative impacts of overabundant wildlife
    • Motive: relief from damage or problems caused by wildlife
    • * Reducing impact doesn't always mean reducing wildlife

    • Goal 3: Increase population size of scarce or declining wildlife
    • may not be endangered but something people want to see more of
    • Motive: increase population of desirable or valued wildlife

    • Goal 4: Preserve "natural" communities
    • biodiversity, ecosystem integrity, structure
    • Motive: maintain a diverse wildlife community, especially in protected areas
  12. Maximum sustainable yield
    number of animals that can be harvested from a population while being able to harvest the next year's
  13. Yosemite National Park
    • - originally set aside for geologic purposes
    • - controversy over the Hetch Hetchy dam (San Francisco)
    • John Muir & Sierra Club fought agaisnt it
  14. Land Ethic
    • - nature is a complex system
    • - each species is important as a component of a whole
    • - humans are "citizen-members" of the biotic systems
  15. Four types of info needed for effective management
    • 1. Natural History & Ecology
    • - food webs, trophic levels, niche, habitat requirements
    • - Distribution & range
    • determined by environmental gradients
    • -Life History
    • growth pattern, age of maturity, age-specific reproduction, age-specific mortality, seasonal changes & annual cycle events, interaction with other species

    • 2. Genetics
    • - especially important for small populations

    • 3. Diversity and Abundance
    • - Abundance: population size or density (# over defined area)

    • 4. Population Dynamics
    • - ability to estimate population parameters and understand mechanisms
    • - how these interact and change the population
  16. Ways of measuring Diversity and Abundance
    • 1. Direct Total Count
    • - simple, easy to interpret, no estimation
    • - expensive, usually impractical, time consuming
    • - primarily used for large mammals

    • 2. Direct Sample Count (or census)
    • - representative sample
    • - statistics

    • 3. Indirect Counts
    • a.) Mark-Recapture method
    • - trap, mark, recapture, track proportion of marked animals
    • - assumptions: closed population, all animals equally "catchable", no lost markers, no difference in survivorship
    • b.) Change-of-Ratio
    • - useful for estimating population size before and after harvest
    • c.) Indices
    • - not itself an estimate of population size, but a proportion to population size
    • - tells if population is growing or reducing without actual numbers
  17. 2 Common Indices
    1. Christmas Bird Count

    2. Breeding Bird Survey
  18. Biological Diversity
    Species Richness
    Species Diversity
    Biological diversity: enumeration of species

    Species richness: number of different species

    Species diversity: accounts for both the number of species present (richness) but also the relative abundance of each
  19. Shannon-Wiener Index
    - in general, with 1,000 individuals and fewer than 11 species, the index ranges from 0 - 2.3

    - the greater the number of species, the higher the index
  20. 4 contexts in which "overabundance" can be understood
    - Caughley (1981)

    • 1. When the animals threaten human life or livelihood
    • 2. When the animals repress the densities of favored species
    • 3. When the animals are too numerous for their own good
    • 4. When their numbers cause ecosystem dysfunction

    - Caughley felt that control was only appropriate at 4
  21. Life Tables
    • - a record of survival and reproduction rates for a population, broken up by age, size or developmental stage
    • - useful for understanding patterns and causes of mortality
    • - important for predicting future growth or decline
    • - often used for managing species
  22. Cohort Life Table
    - Cohort: a set of all individuals born, hatched, recruited into a pop. during a defined time interval (often annual)

    - follows the survival and reproduction of all members of a cohort from birth to death

    • - Assumptions:
    • sample cohort is representative of the population
    • reproductive & survival rate must be accurately measured
    • closed population
    • age-specific reproducttion & mortality/survivorship rates are constant during study
    • *difficult in long-lived species
  23. Static Life Table
    - records the number of living individuals in each age group in a population and their reproductive output at a given time

    - useful for long-lived or highly mobile species

    - uses indirect estimation

    • - Assumptions
    • sample must be representative of the whole pop.
    • stable population size
    • *difficult since these are usually the pop.s we are interested in
    • stable age distribution
  24. Ways to Organize Life Tables
    • 1. Age-based
    • - classify individual by age, represented by subscript x
    • - less than a year is age 0

    • 2. Size-based or stage-based
    • - classify by developmental stage
    • - useful for animals that are difficult to age or when stage is more ecologically relevant
  25. Basic Info required for for life tables
    • Fecundity: measure of reproduction, generally the number of offspring per individual
    • often the number of female offspring per female

    • Survivorship: probability of surviving
    • relates to birth and death rates
  26. Life table equations
    Age interval (x): could be size, stage, etc.

    • Standardized survivorship (lx): proportion of individuals born that survive to age x (from birth)
    • always equal to 1 at age class 0
    • this number can only decrease over time

    • Age-specific survivorship/Survival rate (Sx): probability of an individual who has survived to age x reaching age x+1
    • will always range from 0 - 1
    • does not necessarily follow a pattern from year to year

    Mortality (dx): probability from birth of dying in age interval x, x+1

    Mortality rate (qx): probability of an individual at age x dying before reaching x+1

    Maternity rate (mx): number of individuals produced per individual within a given time period
  27. Using life tables to measure population change
    • Net reproductive rate (R0): lifetime reproductive potential of the average female, adjusted for survival; estimate of rate of change in the population per generation
    • - R0 > 1 = increasing
    • - R0 = 1 = constant
    • - R0 < 1 = decreasing
    • measures population change in terms of generation time

    Generation time (G): time until females begin to produce offspring (important to know for rate of poulation growth)

    Life expectancy (ex): how much longer an individual of a given age can be expected to live
  28. Geometric and Exponential Population Models
    • Discrete-time model = geometric
    • - uses time interval (one year)
    • - simpler equations (no calculations)
    • - realistic for seasonal, synchronistic reproduction

    Exponential
  29. Geometric Population Growth
    • Assumes:
    • closed population
    • birth and death rates constant over time
    • birth & death rates do not change with change in population
    • density independent

    - Can only be used 1 year at a time unless the equation is altered using lambda as a shortcut

    - Smaller lambda means longer time to reach given population size
  30. Real life examples of exponential growth
    • 1. European rabbit introduced to Australia
    • - 12 pairs released in 1859
    • - first 6 years lambda = 4.7
    • - after 6 years, pop. grew from 24 to 258, 701 rabbits

    2. Ring-Necked pheasants introduced to Protection Island, WA
  31. Lacey Act
    • - 1900
    • - prohibited interstate commerce in illegal game and wildlife products
    • - targeted market hunting
  32. Weeks-McLean Act
    • - 1913
    • - federal government establishes jurisdiction over wild animals
    • - not owned by private land owners
  33. Migratory Bird Treaty Act
    • - 1918
    • - imposes strict regulations on exploitation of migratory birds
    • - ex.) waterfowl seasons
    • - US, Canada, Mexico
  34. National Environmental Policy Act
    • - 1969
    • - mandates EIP (Einvironmental Impact Proposal) for proposed development or impacts
  35. Clean Water Act
    • - 1972
    • - policy of "no net loss of wetlands"
  36. Endangered Species Act
    • - 1973
    • - federal government can restrict use of private lands if endangered spp. are present
  37. National Security Act
    - establishes incentive programs for landowners to take land out of production

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