95% fat in diet atre TG, other 5% are phospholipids
what are the three types of fats?
1. TG's: fat from diet (95% tg, 5% phospho)
2. phospholpids: used to make cell mem.
3. sterols: used to make bile, hormones vit D- made of cholest/
what are the functions of lipids?
1. provide energy; fat/oil more calorie dense than cho or pro
2. help make sex hormones; components of cell mem, needed to carry fat-sol vit
3. have efa's: required for growth and health
what are the 2 fa's the body cant make?
linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids; can be incorporated into phospholipds and they help with CNS and brain
what is linoleic acids a member of and what are sources of it?
omega 6's of fa's
veggie oils, meat, human milk
what is an omega 6 we can make and what is a primary component of?
archidonic acids made from linoleic acid, and is component of CNS
what type of omega to us get more of?
omega 6 than omega 3
what are large amounts of linoleic acids used for?
to store body fat
what family is alpha-linolenic a part of?
what are good sources of linolenic acid?
dark green leafy veggies, veggie oil, flaxseed
what are epa and dha?
what are made from linolenic acids
the process of making is slow, and may not make enough to meet amounts
what are good sources of epa and dha and what can it provide?
cold fish, shellfish, human milk
health benefits (cvd related)
what is a serving of fish and how much shouls we eat?
2-3 servings per week because contaiminants: heavy metls(mercury, pesticides)
what do we call fish when free of mercury?
what do americans eat too much of, what should we eat, and what are the source?
eat too much omega 6, eat mor omega 3
get it from flank oil, fish,canola oil, dglv
what are fa's?
part of chemical struc of fats
what are all TG'S?
sat ft, trans fat, unsat fat, monounsat fat, polyunsat fat, oils, lard
what are sat fat, where are they, what can they leas too?
they can raise blood cholest( ldl)
they have NO double bond between C
are solid at rt
can find in almost all type of ditary fat (butter, cheese, meat, dairy) (except tropical oils: palm/coconut)
what are the 2 types of unsat. fa's?
MUFA(monounsat) and PUFA(polyunsat)
they have more than 1 double bond (more double bonds, the less stable so can become rancid)
where do mufa and pufa comr from and what do they include?
from plant sources
include essential f.a's, epa, and dha
what do oxidized/rancid fats have?
they have free radicals that csn destroy nutrients and contribute to cancer
why are plant sources of fats/oils better for health?
to lower LDL, and lower risk of heart dz
monousat might raise HDL
what doe all oils and fats have?
mixture of all 3 types fa's (mono, poly, sat), just in different porprtions
olive oils also have sat fat
what does hydrogenation do?
add H to veggie oils to change chemical struc. to reduce double bonds in oil
makes oils more spreadable (crisco,shortening,etc)
what do hydrogented fats contain more of?
trans fats, sat fats change from cis to trans (can happen in nature, but low amounts)
what are benefits of hygrogenation?
longer shelf life, resistant to oxidation, good for baking, higher smoke point, save money
what do trans fats raise, and what happens wonce oild is hydrogenated??
they raise blood cholest, more than sat fats
theyare worse than sat fats! =(
what is cholesterol and some importnt things about it?
it is a fat solubl substance found in animals only!
component of cell mem., brain
cells would fall apart with out cholest
too much can raise blood cholest
what is cholest a precursor for, what does it convert?
to convert substances into healthy stuff for us
hormones, vit d., sex hormones
does cholest raise blood cholest as much as sat/trans fat?
no, thery are much worse
what are sources of cholest?
eggs, meat, milk products, butter
what are the recommemded amounts of cho, pro, fat, fiber per day?
fiber: women 25 g, men 35 g
why has fat % intake changesd?
because it is more important about the type you eat
what is the effect of high amounts of ldl cholest?
raises risk of heart dz
which fats raise ldl, and are unhealthy and what happens it u get too much?
cholest, sat, trans fats
obesity, heart dz, cancers
what is key to do when considering fats?
replace trans/sat with mono/polyunsat.
what foods are high in sat fat???
beef, pork, lamb, most of chicken/turkey (skin + dark) butter, lard, tropical oils, veg, shortneing, dairy products
what are mono and poly sats known for?
having sat fat too, but lower amounts
what are foods lower in sat fat??
1% milk/skim milk, non-fat cheese, white turkey/chicken no skin, shrimp.
what is specific about lean and extra lean meat?
that it can be misleading because people may think its good for them.
what is the general extra lean ground beef labeled?
15-16% fat on label
what is the example of calc of fat by kcal?
162 kcal fat/ 299 total kcal= % fat by kcal
what is the % of full fat beef/cheese?
what meats are less than 50% fat by kcal?
pork, beef, lamb
what are the percentages of milk's fats?
whole = 49-50%
2% = 37
1% = 18
fat free = 0
whatis the first class of vitamins, examples, wherte stored, and there uses?
fat soluble vit= dispersed/dissolved in fat/oils
can be stores a period of time, several months
stored in liver and fatty tissue
help build body
have higher toxcicity than water soluble, soo beee carfeful!!
(vit a, d most toxic)
what is the second type of vit?
water soluble= found in water components of foods
1. b complex vit's: thiamin (b1), riboflavin (b2) niacin (b3), folate, vit b12
2. vit C
body has limited capacity to store them (except vit b12, 3-5 yrs)
excess excretion into urine
do vitamins provide energy?
no, just help with structures
how to vitamins act as coenzymes?
they combine with enzyme to help it work, to do its job, help liberate food
what is metabolism?
glucose to energy of body fat(stored)
in addition to coenzymes what to vitamins act as?
vitamins c, e help prevent damage to cells
which pigment in fruits + veggies acts as antioxidant and what is it a precursor of?
to make vit a!
our bodies make what type of agents and how can they be stopped??
oxidizing agents that come from metabolism
antioxi. help prevent oxidizing agents and other harmful stuff (pollutants, chemicals, etc)
what are proxidants?
when you take too many antioxidants and cn lead to be these and be bad
how many essential minerals are needed in the body and the common ones?
ca, p, mg, fe, zn, f, se,k, i
what are the functions of minerals?
help form bone, teeth, strucs
needed for contraction of muscles (mg, ca)
for nerves to conduct lectrical impulses
maintain amounts of water in tissue, allow for suck and take
help maintain acid/base balance
what doe the body abs most?
the macornutrients that pass trhu GI
Are 100% of vitamins abs in gi?
no, but most of them are
what do minerals form complxes with?
other minerals and with fiber
they are less readily abs
what is individual-level assesment and the 4 componenets?
assesing nutritional status of an individual
1. clinical/physical (exam)
3. anthropometric (physical)
4. biochemical (labs)
what does clinical/physical assesment involve and what do they look fo?
inspection of a person by a trained perseon (rd)
look for nutritional deficiencies:
* excessive/inadequate body fat (not get enough nutrients, ask risk for chronic dz
*palness (suggest fe deficient)
*bruises on skin (cause by vit k deficient)
*easy plucked/brittle hair (protein defieicent)
all cant be used to solely determine nutrition problems, may relate to other things
what are the methods of assesment for dietary?
24 hr recall: (rd ask what they drank/food in last 24 hrs); they determine weight of vol. they ate and put into program to see nutrient intake (low/high); this is least reliable (because can lie); least expensive and time (15-20 min); if want more accurate do 3x or more
24 hr food record: subjet record food/drink in 24 hrs; recrod weight+vol food; works best when person trained; more accurate; can do 3x
Diet history: long interview with rd including 24 hr recall and 24 hr food record; more time involved and extensive; see normal habits; results adjusted to reflex intake (1 hr); most accurate info!
what is involved in anthropometric assesment?
measure body sizes like height, weight, % body fat, bone density, headm waist cirmcumference
very useful to determine nutrition status
they are frquently not done correctly (be aware)
what is involved in biochemical assesment?
lab tests that measure nutrient levels in body, measure body pro, etc.
if rd see's signs of behavior they may ask doctor to perform tests
they are one of the most accurate methods
after all assesments what might an rd do?
give people education on fe rich foods
consume vit c (for better abs)
use fe skillets
cooking techniques to increase fe
develop solutions to solve problems
what is principle # 3?
health related problems related to nutrition originate in the cell
what is homeostasis?
maintain internal environment
balance fluis, nutrient, gas, temp, etc
when can problems arise with nutrients and homeostasis?
when nutreints differ from whats available
this disruption can initiate disease and negaitvely effect tissues
what happens when not get enough folate?
aa methionince converts to cystein with help of floate (b12), so when its not present them methionine gets stuck and is homocysteine, high levels build up inarteries and can lead to heart disease
what is principle 4?
poor nutirion can result from inadequate intake and excessive levels of nutrients
lead to toxicity and deficinecy
what are marginal deficinencies?
state betwen optimal and poor intake of nutrient that can make physical/behavior changes
what are examples of marginal deficiencies?
ex: vit c can cause scurvy (poor wound heal); marginal defiencies may be that there is delayed healing, but not scurvy
ex: depend on how far along deficiency is(if reversible of not)
ex: if vit goes too long then get permenant blindness
what is principle 6 what is malnutrition?
poor intake result from excees or lack of kcal/nutrients
what is principle 7?
some groups are higher risk for malnourishment
what is principle 8?
poor nutrition can effct development of certain dz
diet high in fats: heart dz
diet low in fruit/veg: heart dz, cancers
poor nutrition can lead to: htn, stroke, t 2 dm, obese
what is principle 9?
adequacy, variety, and bal;ance are key charact of healthy diet
healthy diets have different foods
varitey is good: eat from all food groups!
what is nutrient density and example foods?
amount of nutrients per kcal (mg/kcal): for vit, min, pro