Quiz 5/Exam 2

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Quiz 5/Exam 2
2012-03-02 00:55:03
Medistry Chemicinal

plant derivatives, carbs and vitamins (see quiz 4 for the rest of exam 2 stuff)
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  1. narcotic analgesic derived from plants
  2. antimalarial isolated from bark (R, S enantiomer)
  3. anti-arrhythmic derived from bark (S, S enantiomer)
  4. How many Rx drugs are natural plant products or semi-natural?
  5. How many Rx drugs are based on compounds initially derived from plants?
  6. How many OTC products contain at least one component of plants?
  7. anticancer, spindle inhibitor derived from plants
  8. anticholinergic agent isolated from belladonna plant (an alkaloid)....also used pre-anesthesia to limit saliva production
  9. ionitropic, cardiac glycoside derived from plants
    • digitoxin- not used anymore
    • digoxin- used
  10. What plant is digoxin (or digitoxin) derived from?
    digitalis (foxglove)
  11. Plant derived cardiac drug with a very narrow therapeutic index?
  12. What does ionitropic mean?
    strengthens cardiac muscle contractions
  13. T/F: digitoxin and digoxin can be used interchangeably.
  14. common breast cancer drug derived from fungus on a Pacific Yew tree
  15. Anticancer, spindle inhibitor, derived from a common garden flower, podophyllum peltatum
  16. Drug that is derived from plants that treats gout, unique inflammation, can be used for post-cardiac surgery, and is a spindle inhibitor
  17. common analgesic, anti-platelet, prostaglandin/COX inhibitor derived from plants
    acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin)
  18. What are the 6 main classes of secondary metabolites derived from primary metabolites by synthesis in plants?
    • terpenes
    • phenylpropanoids
    • polyketides
    • steroids
    • glycosides
    • alkaloids
  19. What is a primary metabolite?
    direct function in primary biochemical pathways and are essential for life of the plant
  20. What are secondary metabolites?
    • compounds that are synthesized directly from primary metabolites
    • not involved in life-sustaining processes, but they are important in proper biochemistry
    • make a plant unique
    • flavor, color, smell of a plant= secondary
  21. These secondary metabolites are often very complex mixtures isolated from various parts of plants?
  22. Name five examples of terpenes and where they come from on the plant.
    • cinnamon- bark
    • lemon- rind
    • ginger- rhizome
    • peppermint- hairs on leaves
    • rose- petals
  23. Which secondary metabolite is usually desired for its smell or flavor?
  24. How are terpenes synthesized (what pathway)?
    mevalonic pathway
  25. What enzyme do the statins inhibit?
    HMG-CoA reductase
  26. What pathway is HMG-CoA reductase important for?
  27. Which pathway do we use to ultimately make cholesterol?
  28. If you are taking a statin, what products upstream in the pathway are you inhibiting?
    • bile acids (cholic acid)
    • CO-Q10
    • progesterone
    • estrogen
    • testosterone
    • aldosterone
    • pregnenolone
    • adrostenedione
    • hydrocortisone
  29. What molecule does the mevaolonic pathway begin with and where is this made?
    acetic acid made in the liver
  30. What is the rate controlling step of the synthesis of cholesterol (in the mevalonic pathway)?
    HMG-CoA reductase 4 electron reduction using NADPH to convert HMG to mevalonic acid
  31. What do you need to convert mevalonic acid to mevalonic acid 5-pyrophosphate?
  32. What common drug will most likely cause depression in the elderly?
  33. Which common drug has pleotropic effects (anti-inflammatory) according to Dolence?
  34. Which pathway to making cholesterol is a negative feedback system?
    mevalonic pathway (HMG-CoA reductase step)
  35. Which enzyme in the mevalonic pathway maintains an equilibrium between DMAP and IPP?
    IPP isomerase
  36. What are the 2 biological isoprene building blocks for C10 geranyl isoprenoid (GPP) synthesis?
    • IPP
    • DMAP
  37. What are the 2 biological isoprene building blocks for C15 geranyl (FPP) synthesis?
    • IPP
    • GPP
  38. What is the C10 isoprenoid aka?
    GPP (geranyl pyrophosphate)
  39. What is the C15 isoprenoid aka?
    FPP (farnesyl pyrophosphate)
  40. What 2 enzymes/cofactors are important for producing FPP (C15)?
    • farnesyl pyrophosphate synthethase(FPP-ase)
    • CO-Q10
  41. Which enzyme in the mevalonic path helps to control cancer genes?
  42. What single biological isoprene building block is important for squalene synthesis (C30)?
  43. What enzyme is needed to convert FPP to squalene?
    squalene synthase
  44. What molecule is the immediate precursor to cholesterol?
  45. Which product of cholesterol is responsible for women's libido?
  46. Which product of cholesterol is important in salt retention and kidney pumps?
  47. Which product of cholesterol is important for maintaining pregnancy?
  48. Which product of cholesterol is the primary stress hormone?
  49. Which product of cholesterol is a bile detergent?
    cholic acid
  50. Name a C5 terpene.
  51. Name a C10 terpene.
  52. Name a C15 terpene.
  53. Name a C20 terpene.
  54. Name a C25 terpene.
  55. Name a C30 terpene.
  56. Name a C40 terpene.
  57. Name 2 specific C10 terpenes.
    • menthol
    • camphor
  58. Name a specific C40 terpene.
    beta carotene
  59. What class of secondary plant metabolites occurs as a mixture with terpenes in essential oils isolated from plants?
  60. What class of secondary metabolites contains a lot of antioxidants?
  61. Name 5 phenylpropanoids.
    • flavonoids
    • tannins
    • lignans
    • coumarins
    • anthocyanidins
  62. What pathway do the phenylpropanoids take to be synthesized?
    shikimic path
  63. How do plants form/make a benzene ring?
    shikimic pathway
  64. What pathway are all amino acids made by?
  65. What are some common essential oil/flavorings that are phenylpropanoids?
    • cinnamon (cinnamaldehyde)
    • wintergreen (methyl salicylate)
    • clove (eugenol)
    • anise, licorice (anethole)
  66. What are 3 flavonoid natural products derived from phenylpropanoids that are antioxidants?
    • flavones
    • isoflavones
    • anthocyanidin
  67. What is the good and bad about antioxidants (flavonoids)?
    • good: scavenge free radicals
    • bad: inhibit p-glycoprotein pumps = drug intxns
  68. What are 3 coumarin natural products (phenylpropanoids)?
    • coumarin
    • warfarin sodium
    • umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin): cows die!
  69. Name 4 products of the shikimic pathway that are lignans or tannins.
    • gallic acid
    • podophyllotoxin
    • catechol
    • procyanidin B1
  70. Name a specific tannin.
    procyanidin B1 (found in dark chocolate)
  71. Name a specific lignan.
  72. Which natural product did Nestle fund a project for, is an antioxidant good for your heart, and is found in dark chocolate?
    Tannin: procyanidin B1
  73. Polyketide biosynthesis is highly modified via______, _____, and _______?
    • reduction
    • oxidation
    • cyclization
  74. What is a specific example of a polyketide?
  75. An aglycone + a sugar =?
  76. What 2 molecules come together to form digoxin? (think about what a glcyoside is)?
    digoxigenin (aglycone) + D-Digitoxose (sugar)
  77. What is a common cardiac glycoside used to treat CHF?
  78. This class of secondary metabolites contains at least one nitrogen, are large complex structures, and usually have a name ending in 'ine'?
  79. What class is mostly nitrogen-containing ring structures?
  80. Name 6 common alkaloids.
    • caffeine
    • cocaine
    • nicotine
    • stychnine
    • quinine
    • morphine
  81. Which alkaloid do mountain climbers use b/c it prevents muscle cramping?
  82. What drug class are derivatives of carbohydrates?
    antibacterials: streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, kanamicin
  83. Name all the forms of carbohydrates that we as humans can use. (9)
    • starch
    • glucose
    • sucrose
    • glycogen
    • 2-deoxyribose
    • maltose
    • digitoxose
    • glucuronic acid
    • gluconic acid
  84. Name all the forms of carbohydrates that we as humans CANNOT use. (3)
    • cellulose
    • xylans
    • pectins
  85. Humans lack the enzyme necessary to digest which form of carbohydrate? (which type of linkage)
    beta 1,4 glycosidic linkage
  86. Most carbs in nature exist as ?
    high MW polysaccharides
  87. Name 3 high MW polysaccharides (carbs).
    • sodium heparin
    • hyaluronic acid
    • glycogen
  88. What are polyhydroxyl aldehydes and polyhydroxyl ketones?
  89. Define: 1 sugar molecule with a carbon number ranging from 3 to 7 or more carbons.
  90. What do we call a 6 membered heterocycle ring?
    pyranose ring
  91. What do we call a 5 membered heterocycle ring?
  92. Define: 2 or more monosaccharides hooked together.
  93. Name 3 disaccharides (and give their layman name).
    • sucrose: table sugar
    • maltose: plant sugar
    • lactose: milk sugar
  94. A polysaccharide that is a precursor to D-glucosamine?
    hyaluronic acid
  95. This polysaccharide carb is an anticoagulant, consists of alpha D glucuronic acid, alpha L iduronic acid, alpha D glucosamine and N-acetyl-alphaD glucosamine that is sulfated in a number of positions. It inhibits the formation of fibrins.
    sodium heparin
  96. This polysaccharid carb is a matrix gel material that is lubricant for the joints.
    hyaluronic acid
  97. This polysaccharide carb is a readily available energy source for humans that consists of alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6 bonded polymer of glucose.
  98. _____ are proteins that are covalently bonded to polysaccharides?
  99. ______ are carbohydrates that contain lipids?
  100. Which plasma proteins are glycosylated?
    all except albumin
  101. Clotting factors, hormones, antibodies, cellular and extracellular membranes, and many other proteins are all what???
  102. T/F: carbohydrates are highly variable.
  103. What type of molecules exist with highly variable stereochemistry, different glycosidic linkages and sequence variations of the basic sugar units?
  104. What type of bonding is seen in carbs?
    bonded via a protein amino or hydroxyl group with the sugar molecule
  105. Why are the varying glycosylated patterns of glycoproteins important?
    they have been shown to influence molecular targeting and cell-cell recognition
  106. Which subtype of carbs tend to show a balance b/w catabolism and synthesis?
  107. What causes Gaucher disease?
    a buildup of glycolipids b/c they lack hydrolase enzymes that degrade them
  108. T/F: in water, alpha D-+-glucose is in equilibrium with beta D-+-glucose.
  109. How do plants make carbs?
  110. polysaccharides are formed via ______________ in plants?
    UDP (uridine diphosphoglucose)
  111. What are 2 medicinally useful sugar alcohols?
    • mannitol
    • sorbitol
  112. This sugar alcohol (carb) is useful in foods, cosmetics and sweeting drugs, and is 70% w/w solution?
  113. _____ is an osmotic diuretic that increases the osmotic gradient in the kidney and can also be used as an excipient?
    mannitol (Osmitrol)
  114. Is mannitol hygroscopic or non-hygoscopic?
  115. Is sorbitol hygroscopic or not?
    yes it is hygroscopic
  116. What drug would you give for severe glaucoma or to treat a head injury? why?
    • mannitol
    • makes you pee a lot
  117. Name 4 medicinally useful sugars (carbs)?
    • dextrose USP
    • calcium gluconate USP
    • ferrous gluconate
    • D-glucuronic acid
  118. How can you administer ferrous gluconate?
    • oral
    • IV
  119. Who would you give ferrous gluconate to?
  120. What is ferrous gluconate?
    • an iron supplement
    • a sugar (carb)
  121. What would you use dextrose USP for?
    nutrient and fluid replenishment
  122. What would you use calcium gluconate USP for?
    replenish calcium
  123. how can you administer calcium gluconate USP?
    • IV
    • oral
    • IM
  124. What would you use D glucuronic acid for? (Glucurone)
    certain arthritic conditions
  125. T/F: dextrose USP is a mixture of alpha and beta anomers of glucose obtained by hydrolysis of starch.
  126. Which enantiomer of glucose is dextrose USP?
  127. This sugar is an aid used for tablet and capsule diluent?
    lactose NF (milk sugar)
  128. What type of linkage does lactose NF have in it?
    beta 1,4 link
  129. T/F: lactose NF has two forms- alpha lactose and beta lactose.
  130. What two sugars make up the lactose molecule?
    • galactose
    • glucose
  131. What sugar is a sweetener and tablet excipient?
    sucrose NF
  132. Where do we get sucrose NF from?
    • beets
    • cane sugar
  133. Which sugar carb is a disaccharide and yields one D-glucose and one D-fructose after hydrolysis?
    sucrose NF
  134. This sugar is used as a diagnostic aid to test for Celiac disease?
    Xylose USP
  135. This is a malt sugar, obtained by enzymatic digestion of starch to a disaccharide of D-glucose?
  136. This 2 sugars are used extensively as carb sources for infants or adult invalid formulas?
    • dextrin
    • maltose
  137. ________ are variable MW polysaccharides obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch?
  138. What is amylum?
    Starch NF
  139. This is a modified starch used as a tablet excipient?
    pregelatinized starch NF
  140. This carb is isolated from corn and has a high MW?
    starch NF/amylum
  141. What is the water-soluble form of starch called?
  142. What is the hot water insoluble form of starch called?
  143. T/F: we cannot digest starch because of its bond linkages.
    false; we can
  144. What type of bond linkages does starch have?
    alpha 1,4
  145. What is starch NF used for?
    • an absorbent
    • an emollient
    • excipient in tabs and caps
  146. 80-90% of starches are?
    • amylopectin
    • not soluble
  147. 10-20% of starches are?
    • amylose
    • water soluble
  148. T/F: we can digest cellulose.
  149. This polysaccharide uses Beta 1,4 linkages to hook together 100-200 Beta-D-glucose molecules?
  150. This carb is found in plants as a supportive structure (wood)?
  151. Name the 10 useful cellulose derivatives.
    • cellulose acetate phthalate NF
    • pyroxylin USP
    • carboxymethylcellulose sodium USP
    • oxidized cellulose
    • hydroxypropylcellulose USP
    • ethyl cellulose NF
    • methyl cellulose USP
    • powdered cellulose NF
    • microcrystalline cellulose NF
    • purified cotton
  152. This carb can be used as a surgical aid?
    purified cotton
  153. This carb/cellulose is a tablet diluent?
    microcrystalline cellulose NF
  154. this carb/cellulose can be used as a tablet diluent, adsorbant, or suspending agent?
    powdered cellulose NF
  155. this carb/cellulose swells up after you add water to it?
    methyl cellulose USP
  156. this carb/cellulose is used as a tablet BINDER?
    ethyl cellulose NF (ethyl ether)
  157. What is the brand name of oxidized cellulose?
  158. This carb/cellulose is a local hemostatic agent used to control hemorrhage, promotes blood clotting?
    Oxycel (oxidized cellulose)
  159. What do we use HPC (hydroxypropylcellulose USP) for?
    • suspending agent
    • tab excipient
    • increase viscosity
    • topical protectant of the eye (ophthalmic solutions USP): contact lenses or artificial tears
  160. This carb/cellulose can be used for tablets USP as a cathartic, ophthalmic solutions USP as a topical protectant (contacts, artificial tears), as a suspending agent, tablet excipient, viscosity increasing agent, thickening agent, or as a bulk laxative?
    methyl cellulose USP (methyl ether)
  161. This cellulose carb can be used to enteric coat tabs, and is resistant to acid in the stomach, but is soluble in the basic intestinal tract?
    cellulose acetate phthalate NF
  162. This cellulose carb is necessary to produce colloidon USP, and is also used for various coating purposes on tabs?
    pyroxylin USP
  163. This cellulose carb is also called the soluble gun cotton, which is made by treating cotton with nitric and sulfuric acid to produce cellulose tetranitrate?
    pyroxylin USP
  164. this cellulose carb is used as a suspending agent, tab excipient, viscosity increasing agent, a tablet USP cathartic, and as an emollient-type bulk laxative with excellent lubricating properties?
    carboxymethylcellulose sodium USP (CMC)
  165. Which 2 cellulose carbs are used as bulk laxatives?
    • CMC
    • Methyl cellulose
  166. Which 2 cellulose carbs are used in ophthalmic solutions USP?
    • methyl cellulose
    • HPC
  167. T/F: heparin is a carbohydrate.
  168. T/F: high MW heparins are better for the patient than low MW.
    false; low is best
  169. Name the 4 low MW heparins.
    • Lovenox
    • Orgaran
    • Fragmin
    • Normiflo
  170. What type of carb is acarbose (Precose)?
    an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor
  171. ________ inhibits the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of dextrin carbs in the intestine therefore delaying their digestion?
    Acarbose (Precose)
  172. This carb is used in the adjunct treatment of diabetes mellitus but may cause diarrhea b/c it inhibits the absorption of a particular sugar, dextrin?
    acarbose (precose)
  173. How would you administer a low MW heparin product?
    • subQ into the stomach muscle
    • can be done at home
  174. What tissues can you get heparin from?
    • lung
    • liver
    • intestine
  175. Where does most of heparin come from?
    cow and pig intestine and lung mucosa
  176. ______ is a highly negatively charged, polyanionic electrolyte that is located on the surface of vessels and cells?
    heparin sodium
  177. ____ is a mucopolysaccharide carb that is found in nearly all types of animal tissues that possess a high # of O- and N- sulfate groups and some N-acetyl groups?
    heparin sodium
  178. What is the avg. MW of heparin sodium?
  179. What is the MOA of heparin sodium?
    General: involves serine protease clotting factors and the serine protease inhibitor antithrombin III (ATIII)
  180. T/F: heparin sodium is given IV to prevent thrombosis/clotting pre-surgery.
  181. How does heparin sodium prevent a clot?
    • induces a conformational change in the ATIII protein
    • this allows ATIII to irreversibly inhibit serine based clotting factors like Factors X, XI, XII, and IX (9,10,11,12)
    • by inhibiting these clotting factors, prothrombin is not converted to thrombin
    • no thrombin= no fibrinogen to fibrin
    • no fibrin matrix= no clot
  182. T/F: heparin sodium can inhibit platelet aggregation to a certain extent.
  183. What is the antidote used to reverse the anticoagulation of heparin?
    protamine sulfate
  184. What do you have to watch for if you want to give the antidote protamine sulfate?
    anaphylaxis could occur in patients allergic to fish
  185. T/F: heparin can also encourage fibrinolysis to occur.
  186. Where is heparin metabolized?
    in the liver by hydrolysis
  187. What two forms does heparin come in?
    • sodium
    • calcium
  188. How would you monitor heparin anticoagulation?
    prothrombin time assay
  189. T/F: heparan and heparin are the same.
  190. How does protamine sulfate reverse heparin effects?
    it is a polycation so it interacts with heparin (a polyANION) neutralizing its effects
  191. T/F: low MW heparins are just fragments of regular heparin that have been depolymerized.
  192. What is the avg MW of low MW heparins and what is the size range?
    • avg: 4000-5000
    • range: 4000-9000
  193. What are the benefits of low MW hep over regular hep?
    • avoid a lot of side effects
    • more bioavailable
    • more predictable
    • longer half-lives
    • less platelet inhibition
  194. T/F: generally, you can give a lower dose of LMW heparin than you can of HMW heparin for the same therapeutic effect.
  195. The purpose of low MW heparin is to enrich the polysaccharide with the unique _________ region that binds to ATIII?
  196. How many unique polysaccharide fragments could you see in a low MW heparin?
  197. What are the 2 main differences b/w HMW and LMW heparins?
    • 1: LMH hep have less undesirable bleeding side effects when compared to unfractionated hep
    • 2: LMH has less ability to prolong activated thromboblastin time (APTT), but it is still able to inhibit Factor X
    • *it is more selective and does not inhibit other clotting factors like 9, 11, and 12
    • *has more anti-Factor Xa activity than anti-thrombin activity
  198. What are the 4 fat-soluble vitamins?
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  199. What are the two classes of vitamins?
    • water-soluble
    • fat-soluble
  200. T/F: we have significant stores of fat-soluble vitamins in the liver.
  201. These are readily absorbed through the intestinal mucosa?
    fat-soluble vitamins
  202. How many micrograms of all trans-retinol does 1.0 IU or USP contain?
    0.3 microgram
  203. These vitamins are important for sperm production, epithelial tissue growth, bone growth, vision, protein synthesis, reproduction and embryonic development?
    vitamin A's
  204. What are the 4 units used to express vitamin A?
    • IU
    • USP units
    • RE: retinol equivalents
    • Beta-carotene equivalents
  205. T/F: all compounds that possess biological activity similar to retinol can be called vitamin A.
  206. T/F: vitamin A deficiency is not very common
  207. Fish liver oil is the best source of what vitamin?
  208. Plant and dairy sources of Vitamin A are in what form?
    provitamin carotenoids
  209. Vitamin A from animals occurs in what form?
    retinyl esters
  210. What two ways is vitamin A absorbed?
    • passive diffusion: enhanced by fatty food
    • facilitated diffusion: via enterocytes
  211. Where is RBP stored?
    Stellate cells
  212. How is vitamin absorbed by facilitated diffusion?
    • enterocytes convert retinol into 2 types of esters for transport
    • the esters are incorporated into chylomicrons that enter the lymph system
    • when they get into general circulation, the liver hepatocytes take them up and cleave them back into retinol
    • the retinols are coupled to RBP (retinol binding protein)
    • RBP is then stored in Stellate cells
    • they go into general circulation transport by a protective transport complex
  213. Vitamin A in animals is synthesized from carotenoids obtained in the diet from what foods?
    deep green, yellow and orange fruits and veggies
  214. What form of vitamin A is a hormonal signal to epithelial cells in the skin?
    retinoic acid
  215. What form of vitamin A is a neuronal signal to the brain for vision at night?
    all trans-retinal
  216. What is the typical path of the different forms of vitamin A?
    • retinOL (Vitamin A1) ----> 11-cis retinAL
    • 11-cis retinAL -----> retinoic acid
    • 11-cis retinAL + visible light -----> all trans-retinAL
  217. What is nyctalopia?
    night blindness
  218. If you are deficient in vitamin A, what symptoms might you see?
    • night blindness
    • skin lesions
    • long bone overgrowth
    • tooth defects
    • degeneration of mucus membranes=GI problems
  219. Which vitamin is highly teratogenic?
    vitamin A
  220. What is the final end product of vitamin A biochem that is responsible for vision?
  221. What molecule represents Vitamin A USP?
  222. What are two other names for vitamin A USP?
    • all trans retinol
    • vitamin A alcohol
  223. What is the brand name of tretinoin USP?
  224. What would you use Retin-A (tretinoin USP) for?
    • topical txt for acne
    • also for APL (cancer)
  225. What is an important caution to give with tretinoin (Retin-A) use?
    wear Sunscreen!!!!
  226. What is the MOA of Retin-A (tretinoin)?
    • skin peeling
    • decreased adhesion of corneocytes
    • increased proliferation of follicular epithelium
  227. What is the molecular form name of Retin-A (tretinoin)?
    retinoic acid
  228. What is the brand name of isotretinoin USP?
  229. Which vitamin A is used to treat very severe acne?
    accutane (isotretinoin)
  230. How long would you typically be using accutane for acne?
    15-20 weeks
  231. Which vitamin prescription drug requires to be tested for pregnancy before use?
    accutane (isotretinoin)
  232. If you are taking accutane or tegison, what two measures do you need to take to comply?
    • prego test
    • use birth control because it can end up in semen too
  233. What molecule is accutane?
    13-cis-Retinoic acid
  234. What is the MOA of accutane/isotretinoin?
    inhibits sebaceous glands and follicular function which decreases sebum production, gland size and differentiation
  235. What are the adverse effects of accutane use?
    same as hypervitaminosis A (OD)
  236. Which Vitamin A product is a prodrug ester?
    etretinate (Tegison)
  237. Which vitamin drug would you use to treat severe recalcitrant psoriasis?
  238. T/F: accutane and tegison are both in capsule form.
  239. Which vitamin A drug can be detected up to 1 year after stopping use?
  240. Which vitamin A drug undergoes significant first pass effect?
  241. Which vitamin A drug is stored for long periods of time in fat?
  242. competes with sulfonamide antibiotics in the synthesis of folic acid in bacteria?
  243. Used as a sunscreen.
  244. a coenzyme for conversion of precursors to purines
  245. biosynthetic component of folic acid in bacteria
  246. Used to treat fatty liver, liver cirrhosis, tardive dyskinesia and pre-senile dementia?
  247. Where would you find choline in diet?
    • eggs
    • fish
    • liver
    • milk
    • veggies as lecithin
  248. a component of plasma phospholipids and biomembranes
  249. precursor to SAM and coenzyme responsible for methylation
  250. A saccharide alcohol important for secondary messengers in cell membranes---leads to influx of calcium.
  251. where would you find inositol (in diet)?
    • most animal tissue
    • cereal grains
    • eggs
    • blood
    • milk
    • liver
    • brain
    • kidney
    • heart muscle
    • citrus fruits at ripening
  252. What is # is a megadose of vitamin C?
  253. What are 3 bad things that will happen if you OD on vitamin C?
    • crystal deposits in urine
    • oxalate deposits in skin
    • calcium oxalate in renal tubules
  254. What is another name for vitamin H?
  255. Symptoms if you are deficient in biotin/vitamin H?
    • glossitis
    • hyperesthesia
    • dermatitis
  256. What vitamin will you not absorb and become deficient in if you eat too many egg whites (avidin)?
    H (biotin)
  257. Why is biotin important?
    for process of carboxylation everywhere
  258. Where will you get biotin in your diet?
    • eggs
    • liver
    • kidney
    • yeast
    • grains
    • veggies like alfalfa, grass, spinach, string beans
    • nuts
  259. Which water soluble vitamin is readily absorbed in the GI tract and is excreted in the urine unchanged?
    vitamin H (biotin)
  260. deficient = scurvy, bleeding, impaired collagen formation
    vitamin C
  261. What 3 things does collagen need to be made?
    • iron
    • oxygen
    • vitamin C
  262. what is a good source vitamin C?
    • lime
    • orange
    • lemon
    • rose hips
    • potatoes
    • tomatoes
    • pine needles
  263. T/F: alcoholics will be deficient in Vitamin C.
  264. Why is natural vitamin C better than synthetic?
    b/c synthetic is racemic so you're only getting half of a dose essentially
  265. What water soluble vitamin can increase the excretion of other drugs?
  266. Why can we humans not make vitamin C?
    we lack enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase
  267. What are the functions of vitamin C?
    • effective reducing agent/antioxidant
    • could prevent colds
    • hydroxylation reactions
    • make steroids, collagen, neurotransmitters
    • drug metabolism
  268. What enantiomer is vitamin C?
    "L" ascorbic acid
  269. What drug would you use in combo therapy with vitamin C?
    Hiprex/Urex to increase acidity of urine
  270. Who will commonly be deficient in vitamin C?
    • infants
    • elderly
    • alcoholics
    • drug users
    • poor eaters
  271. This drug can turn your urine blood-red?
    Desferal (deferoxamine mesylate)
  272. What vitamin would you give in combination with Desferal in someone who has OD'd on iron and why?
    • vitamin C
    • b/c it chelates the excess iron
  273. What is vitamin C metabolized into before it is excreted into the urine?
    oxalic acid
  274. Similar structure to folic acid, is used to rescue methotrexate patients?
    leucovorin calcium aka Wellcovorin aka Folinic acid aka Citrovorum factor
  275. vitamin is crucial to take during pregnancy
    folic acid
  276. Folic acid aka:
    • vitamin M
    • vitamin B9
    • folate
    • folacin
    • pteroylglutamic acid
  277. To use folic acid, what other vitamin do you need to have in your diet for the pathway?
  278. T/F: an alcoholic could be deficient in folic acid.
  279. Where do we get folic acid from in food?
    • mushrooms
    • whey
    • liver
    • yeast
    • bone marrow
    • soybeans
    • fish meal
  280. Cooking food will decrease amounts of this vitamin (2)?
    • pyridoxine/B6
    • folic acid/B9
  281. deficiency = anemia
    B12 (cyanocobalamin)
  282. This vitamin comes in a nasal gel, also lozenge, tabs and IV?
    cyanocobalamin (B12)
  283. absorption is dependent on intrinsic factor
  284. Where do we find B12/cyanocobalamin?
    • no plants!
    • streptomyces griseus
    • yogurt
    • meat
    • eggs
    • seafood
    • dairy
    • fermented junk :)
  285. do not use with levodopa
  286. Which four drugs should you not take with vitamin B6?
    • cycloserine
    • hydralazine
    • oral contraceptives
    • levodopa
  287. What three groups of people would be deficient in B12?
    • pregnant women
    • alcoholics
    • pernicious anemics
  288. Which vitamin is required for proper function and maintenance of nerve sheaths?
  289. Which vitamin's absorption is completely dependent on intrinsic factor?
  290. What are the 3 most common reasons why you would see a deficiency of folic acid in someone?
    • tropical sprue
    • gluten enteropathy
    • alcoholism
  291. How is vitamin B12 absorbed in the gut?
    in the ileum it binds to receptors and is then carried across the membrane via active transport or also some by passive transport
  292. T/F: intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein.
  293. What drug is a mucopolysaccharide?
    heparin sodium
  294. Which vitamin K is a prodrug that has to be coupled with geranylgeranylpyrophosphate?
    Menadione (K3)
  295. What is the antidote for heparin, and what is the antidote for warfarin OD?
    • protamine sulfate
    • vitamin K
  296. Which vitamins are very important for glucose (energy metabolism)?
    all B vitamins
  297. What are the 2 main prodrugs in this section?
    • Tegison (vitamin A Etretinate)
    • Menadione (vitamin K3)
  298. Which vitamin needs to be coadministered with a bile salt if the patient has biliary obstruction?
    menadione (k3)
  299. B1
  300. B2
  301. B3
    Niacin/nicotinic acid
  302. B5
    Pantothenic Acid
  303. B6
  304. B7
    Biotin (vitamin H)
  305. B9
    Folic Acid
  306. B12
  307. Which is better, natural or synthetic vitamin C?
    natural b/c syn is racemic so you're not getting as much active drug
  308. T/F: megadoses of thiamine can have adverse effects
  309. What two vitamin Bs are involved directly with the creation of CoA or acetylcholine?
    • pantothenic (B5)
    • thiamine (B1)
  310. What vitamin megadose will cause diarrhea?
  311. What are the main functions of niacin?
    • oxidation/reduction reactions
    • metabolism of food
    • healthy skin
    • nerves
    • GI tract
  312. What is the major electron carrier in reductive biochemistry?
  313. What two molecules are the major electron carriers in the oxidation of fuel molecules? (deals with B3)
    • FADH2
    • NADH
  314. What disease is a cause of niacin deficiency?
  315. what are the major signs and symptoms of a niacin deficiency?
    • diarrhea
    • dermatitis
    • dementia
  316. Which vitamin can be used to treat hyperlipidemia?
  317. Which drugs should you not take with B2 Riboflavin?
    • TCAs
    • probenicid
    • phenothiazines (antipsyc, tranqs)
  318. Which vitamin is sensitive to light and should be placed in an amber colored bag if in IV form?
    B2 (riboflavin)
  319. What 5 things could cause seborrheic dermatitis and vascularization of the cornea and severely cracked lips(angular cheilosis)?
    • alcoholism
    • ariboflavanosis
    • phenothiazines
    • probenecid
    • TCAs
  320. T/F: though vitamin B2 is water soluble it can stilled be stored in small amounts in the liver and kidney.
  321. ______ is important in the breakdown of carbs, fats, proteins, and like thiamine acts as a coenzyme in the process?
    B2 riboflavin
  322. What is the most active form of vitamin B6?
  323. Deficiency of this vitamin in infants can manifest as seizures? and why?
    • B6 pyridoxine
    • b/c of below normal GABA
  324. Mega doses of this vitamin can cause nerve damage?
    pyridoxine B6
  325. Neuropathy, confusion, poor coordination, insomnia and major oral problems are a sign of a deficiency of vitamin ___?
    B6 pyridoxine
  326. T/F: if a patient has Parkinson's disease or is taking levodopa, it is okay to give them vitamin B6?
  327. T/F: humans can synthesize folic acid.
  328. Poor growth, mouth irritation, and megaloblastic anemia are signs of a deficiency of vitamin ___?
  329. Which B vitamin is extensively reabsorbed enterohepatically?
    folic acid
  330. Megadoses of this drug can cause convulsions and disrupt zinc absorption?
    folic acid