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eight elements of a policy frame work
- Analyze: attempts to analyze a policy or program
- Sensitive: understands policy is context sensitive and there are competing priorities
- Rational: employ rational methods of inquiry and analysis
- Conclusion: succeeding analysis should come to the same conclusion
- Benefit: commitment to have the greatest benefit at the least cost
- Consequences: should take in to account the unitended consequences of the policy or program
- Alternative: should consider alternative policies and future resources
- Impact: should examine the impact on other policies, social problems and the overall public good
English Poor Laws
Early social welfare relief in England was considered a private and church matter. However, in 1601 the English gov't est. the Elizabethan Poor Laws that were largely administered through church parishes. Remained active for 250 years, est. the responsibility to provide relief to the needy. Divided needy in to three classes of dependents and proposed remedial measures: needy children- apprenciceships, able bodied- work, worthy poor- indoor (institutional) or outdoor (home) relief.
The second great awakening was the idea that America would be
"The City on the Hill" a pure and holy nation
What three products of the Second Great Awakening had a lasting influence on what was to become social welfare policy?
- The religious impulse for reform was channeled into private organizations attempting to affect public change
- A cadre of female leaders were mobilized and trained
- An African American clergy began to form to lead the Afican American converts
Charity Organization Societies had offices in America by ____ and provided care to the ____.
1900's ; destitute
relief of the COS was provided by _____.
volunteers and agency representatives
The COS educated
both upper and lower class to their mutual obligation
they were considered _____ to the people and instructed the poor ______.
"friendly vistitors" ; on how to better manage their lives
COS's charity was seen by some as a form of _____. They were ______, and the COS believed charity resulted in ____.
social control; less than generous; sloth and dependency
The president of the NY COS believed that charity should ______. The COS believed it was difficult to _____, and that _____.
"only be distributed when starvation was immenent" ; maintain a sense of christian duty in the presence of immoral behavior; more radical measures were needed to assist the lower class.
Settlement houses began in ____ and immerged in big cities _____.
1880's ; over the next two decades
Settlement houses were primarily set up in ___ by ___ who moved in to ____ to help ___.
immigrant neighborhoods; wealthy people, college students, unattached women, teachers, doctors, lawyers, ect. ; slums ; organize the system
Settlement houses provided _____.
fresh reliable knowledge about economic conditions in American society
____ established Hull House in Chicago in ____ and the idea was based on ____. By ____ more than ____ settlement houses existed in large American cities.
Jane Adams; 1889; Christian Socialism; 1915; 300
Settlement houses provided ____, but were____. They ____ the poor to ____, and used ____ of elite citizens to form ____.
individual services to the poor; reform oriented; organized; press for change; interest groups; national alliances
Settlement houses pioneered reforms such as ____.
TB prevention and well baby clinics
What are the theories of dicrimination
frustration-aggression; authoritarian personality; norrmative-cultural; economic
explain frustration-aggression theory
- formulated by J. Dollard, maintains that discrimination is a form of aggression activated when individual needs become frustrated.
- When people cannot direct their anger at the real source of their rage, they seek a subsitute target (weak minority)
explain authoritarian personality theory
developed by Theodore Adorno and others believed discriminatory behavior is determined by personality traits that involve a reaction to authority. Persons who exhibit the traits of irrationality, rigidity, conformity, xenophobia, are more likely to discriminate
explain normative-cultural theory
suggests that individuals hold prejudicial attitudes beacause of their socialization. That is, through both overt and covert messages, a society teaches discrimination and rewards those who conform to prevailing attitudes and behaviors
explain the economic theory
contends that dominat groups discriminate to maintain their economic and political advantages. Ex: male workers discriminating on female workers because they percieve them as encroaching on their employment prospects
a pattern of racial discrimination that is strongly entrenched in society
On ____ president ____ signed into law the ____ which____.
July 26, 2006; Bush; Voting Rights Act Reauthorization and Amendments Act of 2006; required bilingual voting materials as est. in the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
there are still questionable voting practices across the country such as _____.
- specific identification requirements
- too few polling places in poor neighborhoods
- closing before everyone can vote
The PRWORA stand for ____ and was est. in ___ and stated _____.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act; 1996; legal immigrants could no longer recieve food stamps, SSI, and TANAF unless they had become US citizens and/or worked and paid social security for at least ten years or they were veterans of the U.S. Army
PRWORA indirectly affected immigration policy including _____ also ____.
- USA patriot act
- enhanced border security act
- homeland security act
- foreign students and refugees