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What are the two semi-independant parts of the lymphatic system?
- network of lymphatic vessels
- lymphoid tissue and organs
What is interstital fluid in the lymphatic vessels?
What are the 4 functions of the lymphatic system?
- return interstitial fluid and leaked plasma to blood
- one way system to the heart
- transport fats
- immune responses
What is the fluid that is "squeezed out" of blood capillaries?
What are 2 differences between lymphatic capillaries and blood capillaries?
- more permeable
- have endothelial minivalves which allow lymph to come in and not escape
What is the on way flow of lymph from blood capillaries to heart?
- from blood capillaries to lymph capillaries
- to lymphatic collecting vessels
- to lymph trunk
- to lymph duct (right lymphatic or thoracic)
- to jugular and subclavian junction
- to superior vena cava
- to heart
What 3 things do lymphatic capillaries absorb during inflammation?
- cell debris
- cancer cells
What are lymph capillaries in the intestines?
What do lacteals do?
absorb digested fat in the intestines
How does lymph move without a pump?
- muscular pump
- respriatory pump
- nearby artery pulsations
What drains the lymph nodes and right side of the head and thorax?
right lymphatic duct
What 2 things does the thoracic duct do?
- arises from the cisterna chyli
- drains 3/4 the body
What are the principle lymphoid organs of the body?
Where are lymph nodes found?
clustered along lymphatic vessels
What are 2 functions of lymph nodes?
What happens when lymph nodes are performing filtration?
macrophages (previously monocytes) destroy microoganisms + debris
What do lymph nodes do for the immune system?
- attack foreign invaders
What are the two regions of lymph node structure?
cortex and medulla
What structure is the bean shaped lymph node surrounded by?
What structure of the lymph node contains follicles with dividing B cells and houses T cells?
What 3 cells does the medulla of the lymph node contain?
- B cells
- T cells
- plasma cells
What do lymphocytes do?
protect against antigens
What are antigens?
What 3 places are T cells found?
- circulating continuously in blood
- lymph nodes
- lymphatic stream
What do B cells produce and what does it do?
- plasma cells
- secrete antibodies
What do antibodies do to antigens?
antibodies immobilize antigens
What tissues are lymphoid organs composed of?
reticular fibers/ reticular connective tissue
What are the 5 lymphoid organs?
- peyer's patches (in intestines)
Do lymphoid organs filter lymph?
What do marcophages do in the lymphatic system?
- phagocytize foreign substances
- activate T cells
What do reticular cells do?
form a network to supports other cell types in lymphoid organs
What is the largest lymphoid organ?
What are the distinct areas of the spleen?
red and white pulp
What do lymph nodes and the spleen have in common?
surrounded by fibrous capsule
What part of the spleen contains mostly lymphocytes and is most involved in immune functions?
What is the red pulp of the spleen's 2 functions in the lymphatic system?
- macrophages remove worn out RBCs
- platelets are stored
Where does hemopoeisis take place in the fetus?
red pulp of the spleen
How does the thymus influence the lymphatic system?
matures T cells
What forms a ring of lymphatic tissue around the pharynx?
What of the tonsils traps and destroys bacteria and foreign objects as they enter the pharynx?
epithelial tissue that forms crypts
What are the 4 tonsils?
Where are peyer's patches found?
distal portion of small intestine
What are isolated clusters of lymphoid tissue, like tonsils, but located in the small intestine?
Where is the appendix?
off the large intestine
What is MALT?
- muscousa associated lymphatic tissue
- peyer's patches, tonsils, appendix