Chapter 7

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Author:
jskunz
ID:
138427
Filename:
Chapter 7
Updated:
2012-02-28 14:32:51
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Medical terminology
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Description:
cardiology
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  1. cardiovascular system
    consists of heart and blood vessels
  2. three types of blood vessels
    arteries, veins, capillaries
  3. angi/o
    vessel
  4. aort/o
    aorta
  5. arteri/o
    artery
  6. arteriol/o
    arteriole
  7. ather/o
    fatty substance, plaque
  8. atri/o
    atrium
  9. cardi/o
    heart
  10. coron/o
    heart
  11. embol/o
    plug
  12. isch/o
    to keep back
  13. phleb/o
    vein
  14. steth/o
    chest
  15. thromb/o
    clot
  16. valv/o
    valve
  17. valvul/o
    valve
  18. varic/o
    dilated vein
  19. vascul/o
    blood vessel
  20. ven/o
    vein
  21. vas/o
    blood vessel
  22. ventricul/o
    ventricle
  23. venul/o
    venule
  24. cutane/o
    skin
  25. electro/o
    electricity
  26. esophag/o
    esophagus
  27. my/o
    muscle
  28. pulmon/o
    lung
  29. son/o
    sound
  30. sphygm/o
    pulse
  31. -ac
    pertaining to
  32. -al
    pertaining to
  33. -ar
    pertaining to
  34. -ary
    pertaining to
  35. -dynia
    pain
  36. -eal
    pertaining to
  37. -ectomy
    surgical removal
  38. -emia
    blood condition
  39. -genic
    producing
  40. -gram
    record
  41. -graphy
    process of recording
  42. -ia
    condition
  43. -ic
    pertaining to
  44. -ism
    condition
  45. -itis
    inflammation
  46. -logist
    one who studies
  47. -logy
    study of
  48. -lysis
    destruction
  49. -lytic
    destruction
  50. -manometer
    instrument to measure pressure
  51. -megaly
    enlarged
  52. -ole
    small
  53. -oma
    tumor
  54. -ose
    pertaining to
  55. -osis
    abnormal condition
  56. -otomy
    cutting into
  57. -ous
    pertaining to
  58. -pathy
    disease
  59. -plasty
    surgical repair
  60. -rrhaphy
    suture
  61. -rrhexis
    rupture
  62. -sclerosis
    hardening
  63. -scope
    instrument for viewing
  64. -spasm
    involuntary muscle contraction
  65. -stenosis
    narrowing
  66. -tic
    pertaining to
  67. -ule
    small
  68. a-
    without
  69. -brady
    slow
  70. endo-
    within
  71. hyper-
    excessive
  72. hypo-
    insufficient
  73. inter-
    between
  74. intra-
    within
  75. per-
    through
  76. peri-
    around
  77. poly-
    many
  78. tachy-
    fast
  79. trans-
    across
  80. ultra-
    excess
  81. aneurysm
    localized widening of artery due to weakness in arterial wall; may develop in any artery, but common sites are abdominal aorta and cerebral arteries
  82. angia pectoris
    severe chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia
  83. arrhythmia
    irregular heart beat
  84. auscultation
    listening to sounds within body, such as heart or lungs, by using stethoscope
  85. bacterial endocarditis
    inflammation of inner lining of heart (the endocardium) caused by bacteria; may result in visible accumulation of bacteria called vegetation
  86. blood pressure
    • (BP)
    • measurement of pressure exerted by blood against walls of blood vessel
  87. bradycardia
    abnormally slow heart rate below 60 beats per minute
  88. cardiac arrest
    complete stoppage of all heart activity, both electrical signals and muscle contrations
  89. cardiac catheterization
    passage of thin tube (catheter) through veins or arteries leading into heart; used to detect heart abnormalities, to collect cardia blood samples, and determine pressure within heart
  90. cardiac enzymes
    complex proteins released by heart muscle when it it damaged; taken by blood sample to determine amount of heart disease or damage
  91. cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    applying external compressions to rib cage in order to maintain blood flow and air movement in and out of lungs during cardiac respiratory arrest
  92. congenital
    mean you were born with it
  93. congential septal defect
    • (CSD)
    • birth defect in wall separating two chambers of heart allowing blood to pass between two chambers; there can be atrial septal defect (ASD) or ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  94. congestive heart failure
    • (CHF)
    • condition that develops when heart muscle is not able to pump blood forcefully enough, reducing blood flow to body; results in weakness, dyspnea, and edema
  95. coronary artery bypass graft
    • (CABG)
    • open-heart surgery in which blood vessel, often leg vein, is grafted to route blood around occluded coronary artery
  96. coronary artery disease
    • (CAD)
    • chronic heart disease caused by arteriosclerosis or therosclerosis of coronary arteries; also called arteriosclerotic heart disease
  97. deep vein thrombosis
    formation of blood clots in deep veins; usually occurs in legs; peices of clot may break away forming emboli
  98. defibrillation
    using instrument called defibrillator to give electrical shock to heart for purpose of converting arrhythmia back to normal hear beat. also called cardioversion
  99. electrocardiography
    • diagnostic precedure that records electrical activity of heart; used to diagnose damage to heart tissue from coronary heart disease or mycardial infarction
    • (EKG)
  100. endarterectomy
    surgical removal of inner lining of artery in order to remove plaques
  101. fibrillation
    abnormal quivering or contractions of heart fibers; occurrence within fibers of ventricle of heart result in cardiac arrest and death; emergency equipment to defibrillate, or convert heart to normal beat, is necessary
  102. heart murmur
    abnormal heart sound such as soft blowing sound or harsh click; they may be soft and heard only with stethoscope or so loud they can be heard several feet away
  103. heart transplantation
    replacement of diseased or malfunctioning heart with donor's heart
  104. heart valve prolapse
    cusps or flaps of heart valve are too loose and fail to shut tightly, allowing blood to flow backwards (regurgitation) through valve when heart chamber contracts; most commonly occurs in mitral valve, but may affect any heart valve
  105. hypertension
    • (HTN)
    • blood pressure above normal range; usually systolic pressure above 140 or diastolic pressure above 90
  106. hypotension
    decrease in blood pressure; can occur in shock, infection, cancer, anemia, or as death approaches
  107. implantable cardioverter defibrillator
    • (ICD)
    • electrical device implanted in chest cavity with electrodes to heart; applies shock to heart to stop potentially life-threatening arrhythmias such as fibrillation
  108. infarct
    area of tissue necrosis that develps from ischemia (not getting adequite blood supply)
  109. myocardial infarction
    • (MI)
    • infarct of heart muscle caused by occlusion of one or more of coronary arteries; symptoms include angia pectoris and shortness of breath
  110. myocardial ischemia
    loss of blood supply to heart muscle tissue of myocardium due to occlusion of coronary artery; may cause angina pectoris or myocardial infarction
  111. occlusion
    blockage of blood vesseal or other hollow structure; may be caused by thrombus, plaque, or embolus
  112. pacemaker
    electrical device that artificially stimulated contraction of heart muscle; treatment for bradycardia
  113. peripheral vascular disease
    • (PVD)
    • disease of blood vessels away from central region of body, most typically in legs; symptoms include pain, numbness, and impaired circulation
  114. sphygmomanometer
    instrument for measuring blood pressure; also called blood pressure cuff
  115. stent
    stainless steel tube placed within blood vessel or duct to widen lumen; may be placed in coronary artery to treat myocardial ischemia due to atherosclerosis
  116. stress test
    method for evaluating cardiovascular fitness; patient is placed on treadmill or a bicycle and then subjected to steadily increasing levels of work; EKG and oxygen levels are taken while patient exercises; test is stopped if abnormalities occur on EKG
  117. tachycardia
    abnormally fast heart rate more than 100 beats per minute
  118. varicose veins
    • swollen and distended veins, most commonly in legs
    • happens when valves aren't working correctly
  119. BP
    blood pressure
  120. cath
    catheterization
  121. CPR
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  122. EKG
    electrocardiogram
  123. ICU
    intensive care unit (duh)
  124. IV
    intravenous (duh)
  125. HTN
    hypertension

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