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  1. which vitamin plays a role in visual, bone growth, reproduction, embryonic development, protein synthesis, sperm production, epithelial tissues
  2. which vitamin comes pirmarily fish liver oils, then deep green, yellow, and orange fruits and veggies
  3. how is Vit A absorbed
    • passive diffusion (enhanced by fatty foods), then facilitated diffusion from enterocytes
    • protective transport complex for general
  4. two pathways vit a leads to
    • nueronal sig to brain for night blindness
    • homornal signals to epithelial
  5. deficiency of vit a leads to
    • degeneration of mucous membranes in eye (night blindness)
    • skin lesions
    • bone overgrowth
    • tooth defects
  6. hypervitaminosis A leads to
    • tetratogenic
    • CNS symptoms
    • GI
    • skin disorders
    • only treated by supportive and discontinuation
  7. tretenoin is a topical treatment for; counsel pts to
    acne; use sun screen
  8. tretenoin MOA
    decrease adhesion of corneocytes, increase proliferation of folliculat epithelium
  9. isotretinoin - accutane is caps used for
    severe acne
  10. isotretinoin MOA
    inhibits sebaceous gland function and follicular funtion decreasing sebum production and gland size and differentiation
  11. etretinate - tegison caps are used for
    severe recalcitrant psoriasis
  12. two facts about etretinate - tegison
    • first pass
    • detectable for 1 year after discontinuation
  13. vit d2 name, d3 name
    califerol, cholecaliferol
  14. what is required of vit D3
    undergo omega - 1 oxidation in liver and allylic ox adjacent to methylene double bond in kidney
  15. why is D3 not a true vit
    produced in skin by UV
  16. vit D MOA
    binds to nuclear receptor that is a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone super family then binds to regulatory regions on genes
  17. how does vit D regulate ca and phospate
    • promotes absorption in intestinal tract
    • " " reabsorption in distal renal tubules
    • " " mobilization from bone
  18. hypervitaminosis D symptoms
    • hypercalcemia
    • bone pain
    • calcium deposits in major organs
  19. what is required for GI absorption of vit D
  20. where is D stored
    fats and muscle
  21. what is vit D used to treat
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • d deficiency
  22. what form is ergocalciferol
  23. calcifediol - 25 - hydroxycholecalciferol - calderol is which form and when is it used
    • D3 still needing metabolism in liver by gamma carboxylation
    • used in long term menal dialysis
  24. calcitriol - 1,25 - hyydroxycholecalciferol - rocaltrol, calcijex is which form and when is it used
    • D3 end product that doesn't need metabolism
    • in long term remaol dialysis or pts that can't properly metabolize vit D2
  25. calcipotriene - dovonex topical cream is used for
    moderate plaque psoriasis
  26. whats the advantage of calcipotriene - dovonex
    doesn't effect bones b/c (less effect on calcium metabolism
  27. calcipotriene - dovonex MOA
    reduces cell numbers and total DNA by inhibiting epidermal cell proliferation and enhances cell differentiation
  28. where is vit E (tocopherol) commonly found
    • wheat, corn, rice germ
    • other seed germs
    • lettuce
    • soy
    • cottonseed oil
  29. what is the most active and found in most supplements of vit E
    alpha - tocopherol
  30. what pathway is vit e synthesized from
    mevalonic acid with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate as key intermediate
  31. which vit is an antioxidant that scavenges lipid peroxides
    vit E
  32. what stores vit E
  33. two facts about vit E
    • acetate or succinate esters --> less subject to auto-oxidation by air
    • racemic mixture
  34. what are the four indications for vit E
    • low serum tocopherol levels
    • increases fragility of RBCs
    • ischemic heart disease
    • artherosclerosis
  35. does vit E cross the placenta well or appear in infants
  36. vit K is a ___ derivative from the family of _____
    naphthoquinone; menaquinones
  37. what two ways to we get vit K
    • dietary intake
    • bacterial synthesis in GI
Card Set
vitamins, carbs, interactions
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