medchem

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
138436
Filename:
medchem
Updated:
2012-02-28 14:59:40
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exam
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Description:
vitamins, carbs, interactions
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  1. which vitamin plays a role in visual, bone growth, reproduction, embryonic development, protein synthesis, sperm production, epithelial tissues
    A
  2. which vitamin comes pirmarily fish liver oils, then deep green, yellow, and orange fruits and veggies
    A
  3. how is Vit A absorbed
    • passive diffusion (enhanced by fatty foods), then facilitated diffusion from enterocytes
    • protective transport complex for general
  4. two pathways vit a leads to
    • nueronal sig to brain for night blindness
    • homornal signals to epithelial
  5. deficiency of vit a leads to
    • degeneration of mucous membranes in eye (night blindness)
    • skin lesions
    • bone overgrowth
    • tooth defects
  6. hypervitaminosis A leads to
    • tetratogenic
    • CNS symptoms
    • GI
    • skin disorders
    • only treated by supportive and discontinuation
  7. tretenoin is a topical treatment for; counsel pts to
    acne; use sun screen
  8. tretenoin MOA
    decrease adhesion of corneocytes, increase proliferation of folliculat epithelium
  9. isotretinoin - accutane is caps used for
    severe acne
  10. isotretinoin MOA
    inhibits sebaceous gland function and follicular funtion decreasing sebum production and gland size and differentiation
  11. etretinate - tegison caps are used for
    severe recalcitrant psoriasis
  12. two facts about etretinate - tegison
    • first pass
    • detectable for 1 year after discontinuation
  13. vit d2 name, d3 name
    califerol, cholecaliferol
  14. what is required of vit D3
    undergo omega - 1 oxidation in liver and allylic ox adjacent to methylene double bond in kidney
  15. why is D3 not a true vit
    produced in skin by UV
  16. vit D MOA
    binds to nuclear receptor that is a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone super family then binds to regulatory regions on genes
  17. how does vit D regulate ca and phospate
    • promotes absorption in intestinal tract
    • " " reabsorption in distal renal tubules
    • " " mobilization from bone
  18. hypervitaminosis D symptoms
    • hypercalcemia
    • bone pain
    • calcium deposits in major organs
  19. what is required for GI absorption of vit D
    bile
  20. where is D stored
    fats and muscle
  21. what is vit D used to treat
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • d deficiency
  22. what form is ergocalciferol
    D2
  23. calcifediol - 25 - hydroxycholecalciferol - calderol is which form and when is it used
    • D3 still needing metabolism in liver by gamma carboxylation
    • used in long term menal dialysis
  24. calcitriol - 1,25 - hyydroxycholecalciferol - rocaltrol, calcijex is which form and when is it used
    • D3 end product that doesn't need metabolism
    • in long term remaol dialysis or pts that can't properly metabolize vit D2
  25. calcipotriene - dovonex topical cream is used for
    moderate plaque psoriasis
  26. whats the advantage of calcipotriene - dovonex
    doesn't effect bones b/c (less effect on calcium metabolism
  27. calcipotriene - dovonex MOA
    reduces cell numbers and total DNA by inhibiting epidermal cell proliferation and enhances cell differentiation
  28. where is vit E (tocopherol) commonly found
    • wheat, corn, rice germ
    • other seed germs
    • lettuce
    • soy
    • cottonseed oil
  29. what is the most active and found in most supplements of vit E
    alpha - tocopherol
  30. what pathway is vit e synthesized from
    mevalonic acid with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate as key intermediate
  31. which vit is an antioxidant that scavenges lipid peroxides
    vit E
  32. what stores vit E
    liver
  33. two facts about vit E
    • acetate or succinate esters --> less subject to auto-oxidation by air
    • racemic mixture
  34. what are the four indications for vit E
    • low serum tocopherol levels
    • increases fragility of RBCs
    • ischemic heart disease
    • artherosclerosis
  35. does vit E cross the placenta well or appear in infants
    no
  36. vit K is a ___ derivative from the family of _____
    naphthoquinone; menaquinones
  37. what two ways to we get vit K
    • dietary intake
    • bacterial synthesis in GI

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