ACC Pathophysiology Unit 2

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kipkun
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ACC Pathophysiology Unit 2
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2012-03-06 15:06:36
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acc patho pathophysiology unit review
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Review and homework unit 2
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  1. Allele
    One or two forms of a gene at corresponding sites on a chromosome pair; the code for phenotype or characteristic manifested in an individual
  2. Amniocentesis
    removal of a small amount of amniotic fluid from around the fetus for examination and diagnosis
  3. Genotype
    Genetic makeup of a cell or individual
  4. Heterozygous
    Having two different alleles at corresponding points on a chromosome pair
  5. Homozygous
    Having two identical alleles at corresponding points on a chromosome pair
  6. Karyotype
    A visual demonstration of the pairs of cell chromosomes arranged in order of size
  7. Phenotype
    The characteristics manifested by a person depending on genetic and environmental factor
  8. Teratogenic
    A substance or condition that impairs normal development of the embryo or fetus in the utero, causing a congenital abnormality
  9. Dyspareunia
    pain or discomfort in the pelvis during sexual intercourse
  10. Gynecomastia
    Abnormal breast enlargement in men
  11. Lactation
    Milk production
  12. Meatus
    Body openings or passage
  13. Menarche
    The first menstural period
  14. Spermatogenesis
    Production of spermatozoa
  15. Aldosterone
    regulates the balance of salt and water in the body
  16. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    controls the amount of reabsorption of water by the renal tubules
  17. Ascites
    Abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen (peritoneal cavity)
  18. Carpopedal Spasms
    strong muscle contraction of the hand or foot
  19. Dysrhythmia
    an abnormal heart rhythm
  20. Hydrostatic pressure
    fluid moves from high pressure to low pressure areas
  21. Hypothalamus
    the gland at the base of the brain (below the thalamus) that controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland
  22. Paresthesia
    an abnormal sensation; typically tingling or pricking ("pins and needles")
  23. Tetany
    repeated skeletal muscle contractions or spasms (often associated w/ hypocalcemia)
  24. Turgor
    indicates tension of the skin based on pressure within the cells; a measure of dehydration
  25. Amniotic fluid
    fluid surrounding a fetus within the amnion
  26. Bilirubin
    a product from the breakdown of hemoglobin, excreted bile
  27. Chorionic Villi
    part of the placenta that can be tested for genetic defects in the fetus
  28. Gravidity
    number of pregnancies, complete or incompletely, experienced by a female
  29. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
    hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; detection in the urine and serum i sthe basis for one kind of pregnancy test
  30. Jaundice
    yellow color of the sclera of the eye and skin due to excessive bilirubin in the body fluids for any reason
  31. Os
    opening or entrance to a passage, especially one at either end of the cervix of the uterus
  32. Ovum
    the matured female egg cell
  33. Peritonitis
    inflammation of the peritoneal membranes that may result from chemical irritation or directly from bacterial invasion of the sterile peritoneal cavity
  34. Placenta
    an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elmination and gas exchange through the umbiblical cord
  35. Supine
    lying face upward; having the front or ventral part upward
  36. Zygote
    fertilized ovum
  37. Fluid compartments of the body are....
    Intracellular and Extracellular (ISF, CSF)
  38. Insensible losses of fluid are....
    Respiration and Perspiration
  39. Antidiuretic Hormone is a hormone released by the....
    posterior pituitary
  40. Aldosterone is a hormone synthesized by....
    adrenal gland
  41. Active transport is characterized by....
    movement of solute using carrier and energy
  42. Osmosis is....
    movement of fluid from low solute concentration to high solute concentration
  43. Edema is...
    Excessive amount of fluid in the intersitital compartment
  44. 4 Causes of Edema
    • -Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure [due to high blood pressure or increased blood volume]
    • -Obstruction of the lymphatic circulation
    • -Loss of plasma protein
    • -Increased capillary permeability
  45. 3 Scale of Fluid Deficit (Dehydration)
    • Mild: loss of 2% body weight
    • Moderate: loss of 5% body weight
    • Severe: loss of 8% or more body weight
  46. Common causes of dehydration
    • -vomitting and diarrhea
    • -excessive sweating and insensible loss
    • -diabetic ketoacidosis with the loss of fluid, electrolytes and glucose in the urine
    • -insufficient water intake
  47. Effects of Dehydration
    • -Dry mucous membranes in the mouth
    • -decreased skin elasticity [or turgor]
    • -low blood pressure
    • -weak pulse
    • -increased hematocrit [an effect of concentration]
    • -causes sufficient hypovolemia to cause decreased mental function and levels of conciousness
  48. Body compensates for dehydration by...
    • -increased thirst
    • -increased heart rate
    • -vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels
    • -decreased urine output
  49. Third Spacing
    fluids shift out of the blood into a body cavity or tissue space where it is no longer available for circulation
  50. Level of cation Na+ is high in the ____ space and low in the _____ space.
    extracellular; intracellular
  51. High serum levels of Na+ is known as....
    Hypernatremia
  52. Major intracellular cation is....
    Potassium
  53. Cardiac dysrhythmias and muscle weakness are associated with...
    hypokalemia
  54. Cation calcium Ca++ (or +2, 2+) in the body is useful in...
    • -provides strenght to bone/teeth
    • -maintains stability of nerve membranes and thus nerve conduction can be affected
    • -required for muscle contraction
    • -necessary for many metabolic functions and enzyme reactions
  55. Causes of Hypocalcemia
    • -Hypoparathyroidism
    • -Malabsoprtion of calcium
    • -deficient serum albumin
    • -increased serum pH
    • -renal failure
  56. Major extracellular anion is....
    Chloride
  57. Cation Mg++ (2+ or +2) is found in serum in low levels due to....
    • Hypomagnesemia -
    • -results from malabsorption or malnutrition; seen frequently in chronic alcoholism
    • -can be caused by diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperparathyroidism and hyperaldosteronism
  58. Intracellular/Extracellular Fluid Spaces (give little details)
    • Intracellular - fluid inside of the cell (Cytosol, etc...)
    • Extracellular - Intravascular fluid, Interstitial fluid and Cerebrospinal fluid
  59. Cervical Cancer Development
    • • Cancer in situ is not at an invasive stage
    • • Cervical cancer is strongly linked to oncogenic STD (herpes and human papilloma HP viruses)
    • • Risk factors: multiple sexual partners. Sexual activity at early age and STD
  60. Uterine Cancer Development
    • • Common in older women {55 years or more}
    • • Screening tests not available
    • • Early indicator: vaginal bleeding in a postmenopausal woman.
    • • Most common: adenocarcinoma from glandularepithelium due to endometrial hyperplasia.
    • • Major factor: excessive estrogen stimulation(such as exogenous estrogen), obesity, diabetes and HBP
    • • Painless vaginal bleed is key sign of endometrial cancer· since it erodes the surface of the uterus.
  61. Autosomal Recessive Disorder
    each parent must pass on the recessive gene to transmit the disorder homozygous allele; heterozygous transmission, i.e. only one gene of the allele is positive produces a carrier.

    • Ex: Colorblindness; Cystic Fibrosis; Phenylketonuria:; Sickle Cell disease
  62. Autosomal Dominant Disorder
    presence of only one affected allele in the gene pair is necessary to produce the disorder; there are no carriers; an affected parent has a 50% chance of passing on the disorder

    Ex: Polycystic Kidney Disease [Adult], Huntington's Chorea [brain degeneration] and Familial hypercholesterolemia;
  63. X-Linked Disorders
    carried by the X chromosome; recessive: passed on to male children by affected mother/non-affected father; female children can be carriers; females can be affected if both mother and father are affected [rare]

    Ex: Hemophilia A; Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
  64. Trisomy 21
    3 chromosomes rather than two in the 21 position.

    Down's Syndrome
  65. Trisomy 18
    Edward's syndrome
  66. Monosomy X
    Turner's Syndrome

    One chromosome, the X chromosome, is present. Only has 45 chromosomes resulting in variety of physical abnormalities and lack of ovaries.
  67. Polysomy X
    Klinefelter syndrome

    an extra X chromosome is present (XXY), resulting in a total of 47 chromosomes in each cell. Not all males show signs and are diagnosed but typically testes are small and sperm are not produced.
  68. Menorrhagia
    increased amount and duration of flow
  69. Metrorrhagia
    bleeding between cycles
  70. Oligomenorrhea
    long cycles of more than 6 weeks
  71. Endometriosis
    Fibrous tissue causes adhesions andobstruction in different organs -If on the ovaries it may cause a "chocolate cyst" that is a fibrous sac containing old brown blood

    • • First manifestation: dysmenorrhea
    • • Cause: unknown.
  72. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    PID is an infection (due to STD or the result of intrauterine devices IUD) of the Fallopian tubes and ovaries

    • • Includes : cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis andoophoritisIt is common!
    • • Ascending infection from vagina or uterinecervix to the fallopian tubes . Exudates may dripfrom fimbriae of F. tubes onto the ovaries.
    • • Most common cause of death in women with PID is: septic shock !
    • • First indication of PID: lower abdominal pain.
    • Pain increases with walking
    • VERY tender pelvic exam
    • Purulent discharge at the cervical os.
    • Fever and increased WBC count
    • Peritonitis
  73. Fibroids
    • Benign tumors of the myometrium (muscle layer on theuterine wall)
    • Common in women in reproductive years.
    • Not considered pre cancerous.
    • Occur as multiple, well define encapsulated masses thatare homrone dependent
    • Asymptomatic until large enough to cause abnormalbleedmg (menorrhagia) or cause pressure on adjacentstructures
    • May interfere with pregnancy.
  74. Cancer of Prostate: Name the two markers
    PSA ( prostatic specificantigen) AND prostatic acid phosphatase.
  75. Placenta Previa
    placenta is implanted in thelower uterus or over the cervical os; placenta in this position can tear and bleed near the end of pregnancy [painless red vaginal bleeding]
  76. Abruptio Placenta
    premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall, resulting in intrauterine bleeding; can be painful or not;usually occurs in third trimester
  77. Puerperal Infection
    infection of the reproductive tract at any time during the 6 weeks following birth
  78. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
    • Hyperplasia of the prostatic tissue with nodules surrounding the urethra leading to itscompression.
    • Imbalance between between estrogen and testosterone as result of aging.
  79. Uterine Prolapse
    is the descend of the cervix of the uterus into the vagina.
  80. Hydrocele
    occurs when excessive fluid collectsin the potential space between the layers of thetunica vaginal is in one or both testes and can beseen by translumination.
  81. Variocele
    • dilated vein in the spermatic cord,usually on the left
    • Usually develops afterpuberty and it is the result of lack of valves in the veins.
    • May be painful and may lead to infertility
  82. Hypospadia
    urethral opening on theVENTRAL surface of the penis.

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