S2M2 histo

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sweetlu
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138460
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S2M2 histo
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2012-03-07 18:56:15
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S2M2 histo
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S2M2 histo
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  1. mucosa
    • - epithelium
    • - lamina propria (GALT)
    • - muscularis mucosa (except in gallbladder)
  2. submucosa
    • - DCT (GALT)
    • -Meissners plexus

    (glands present only in esophagus and duodenum)
  3. muscularis externa
    • - 2-3 layers of SM
    • - inner cirular and outer longintudinal
    • -Myenteric plexus(PNS and ENS) (Auerbachs plexus) b/t 2 layers
  4. serosa/adventitia
    • -serosa- covered by mesothelium
    • -adventitia- no mesothelium
  5. teeth embryological origins
    - with exception of enamel (ectodermal origin), all tooth associated structures are of neural crest cell origins
  6. papillae of tongue
    • - filiform- heavily keratinized, NO TASTE BUDS, scraping
    • - fungiform- non/lightly keratinized, tasts bud present
    • - vallate- largest, non keratinized, 250 TB/ papilla, Von Ebners glands (serous secretion into moat)
    • - foliate- leaf-like and rudimentary
  7. CD36
    • - FA taste receptor on the surface of the tongue
    • - people with large amounts of this will love the taste of fatty foods
  8. taste impulse transmission
    - sour and salty- ion channels

    - sweet, bitter and umami- G-protein linked receptors
  9. duct system of salivary glands
    - intercalated ducts(low cuboidal)-> striated ducts(actively transport Na from saliva to EC space)-> interlobular/excretory ducts
  10. salivary secretions
    - parotid- purely serous, alpha amylase

    - submandibular- predominantly serous, alpha amylase

    - sublingual- predominantly mucous, lipase
  11. cardia glands
    • -shallow pits
    • - deep glands: mucuous secreting, stem and enteroendocrine cells
    • - few parietal cells (HCl) present
  12. pylorus glands
    • - deep pits
    • - short glands
    • - predominantly mucous secreting
    • -EEC- G cells (gastrin)
  13. fundus/ body glands
    • - very shallow pits
    • - deep glands
    • -neck: lots of parietal cells(HCl)
    • - base: Chief cells(pepsin)
  14. parietal cells
    • - only found in gastric glands
    • - produce HCl and IF(intrinsic factor)
    • - have fried egg appearance and intracellular canaliculi
  15. chief cells
    • - only found in gastric glands and predominate in the base
    • - produce pepsinogen and weak lipase
    • - stimulated by gastrin
    • - triangular shape, basal nuclei, strong basophilia
    • - abundant RER on basal surface
  16. G cell
    • - pylorus
    • - EEC (enteroendocrine cell)
    • - secretes gastrin- induces HCl release from parietal cells and pepsin from chief cells
  17. D cells
    • - EEC
    • - produce somatostatin
    • - inhibit parietal and chief cell secretion
  18. paneth cells
    • - base of crypts
    • - produce lysozyme
    • - birds eye granules
  19. CCK
    • - I cells in SI produce
    • - stimulates bile production and pancreatic enzyme secretion
  20. Secretin
    • - S cells in SI
    • - stimulate pancreatic and biliary HCO3 and H2O secretion
  21. brunners glands
    • - tubuloacinar glands in submucosa of the DUODENUM
    • - secrete clear alkaline mucous
    • - creates optimal pH for pancreatic enzymes
  22. Peyers patches
    • - submucosa of ileum (more distally)
    • - aggregations of lymphatic tissue
    • - contain microfold cells that facilitate An and APC
  23. portal lobule
    • - describe liver as an exocrine gland
    • - viewed as a triangle, with a central vein at each corner and a "central" bile duct
    • - bile flows from corners to center
  24. classical liver lobule
    • - hexagonal shaped lobule
    • - 6 portal triads (portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct) at each corner
    • - Central vein in the center
  25. acinus of Rapport
    • - liver acinus perspective
    • -diamond shape- short axis b/t 2 triads and long axis b/t 2 central veins
    • -Zone 1- peritubular- center, first to recieve blood(and toxins)
    • Zone 3- centrilobular- nearest to CV, last to recieve blood=> most vulnerable to anoxia
  26. Ito cells
    • -store Vit A and fat in normal liver
    • - with repeated cell injury they turn into myofibrolblast and begin secreting Coll 1=> fibrosis of the liver
    • -stellate cells in space of Disse(site of hematopoesis in 2 trimester)
  27. Kupffer cells
    - macrophage APCs in liver
  28. ventral mesogastrum
    • - made up of falciform ligament and lesser omentum
    • - peritoneal connection between foregut and ventral body wall
  29. septum transversum
    • - splanchnic mesoderm that lies b/t thoracic cavity and stalk of yolk sac
    • - ultimately becomes the central tendon of the diaphragm and the ventral mesentary
  30. common bowel malformations
    • - most common are bowel atresia and stenosis
    • - most are caused by vascular accidents
  31. reversed rotation of midgut
    • - 180 degree CLOCKWISE rotation as it reenters body cavity (= total of 90 degree CW rotation)
    • - results in transverse colon passing BEHIND duodenum,
    • therefore duodenum does not become secondary retroperitoneal and is mobile=> eventual strangulation
  32. non rotation of midgut
    • - midgut fails to undergoe 180 degree CCW rotation as it reenters the body cavity
    • - this results in the SI being on the right sde of the body
    • - results in LI being on left side of the body
  33. JGA cells
    - macula densa- sense [Na+]

    - JG cells- sense BP and produce renin

    -lacis cells- specialized mesangial cells that release EPO
  34. Collecting duct part
    - cortical- intercalated cells(dark cells) that actively secrete H+ and principal cells(light cells) that respond to ADH and reabsorb H2O

    -medullary- principal cells that respond to ADH and reabsorb H2O

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