Chapter 9

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Author:
jskunz
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138465
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Chapter 9
Updated:
2012-02-28 16:45:03
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Medical Terminology
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Immunology
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  1. immune system
    network of cells, tissues, and organs throughout the body that work together to protect the body against pathogens
  2. pathogens
    anything that can damage the body including viruses, bacteria, toxins, or cancerous cells
  3. functions of the immune system are carried out by:
    white blood cells called lymphocytes
  4. Lymphocytes:
    white blood cells; concentrated throughout the bodyt in the organs of the lymphatic system: lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus gland, and spleen
  5. Immunology
    branch of medicine that diagnoses and treats conditions involving the immune system
  6. allergist
    immunologist who has specialized training in treating allergies
  7. adenoid/o
    adenoids
  8. immun/o
    protection
  9. lymph/o
    lymph
  10. lymphaden/o
    lymph node
  11. lymphangi/o
    lymph vessel
  12. path/o
    disease
  13. phag/o
    eating
  14. splen/o
    spleen
  15. thym/o
    thymus
  16. tonsill/o
    tonsils
  17. cortic/o
    cortes
  18. cyt/o
    cell
  19. system/o
    system (duh)
  20. -ar
    pertaining to
  21. -atic
    pertaining to
  22. -cyte
    cell
  23. -ectasis
    dilated
  24. -ectomy
    surgical removal
  25. -edema
    swelling
  26. -gen
    that which produces
  27. -genic
    producing
  28. -globulin
    protein
  29. -gram
    record
  30. -graphy
    process of recording
  31. -iasis
    abnormal condition
  32. -ic
    pertaining to
  33. -ist
    specialist
  34. -itis
    inflammation
  35. -logist
    one who studies
  36. -logy
    study of
  37. -malacia
    softening
  38. -megaly
    enlarged
  39. -oid
    resembling
  40. -oma
    tumor
  41. -osis
    abnormal condition
  42. -pathy
    disease
  43. -pexy
    surgical fixation
  44. -plasty
    surgical repair
  45. -rrhaphy
    suture
  46. -stasis
    stopping
  47. -therapy
    treatment
  48. -toxic
    poison
  49. anti-
    against
  50. auto-
    self
  51. mono-
    one
  52. AIDS-related complex
    • (ARC)
    • early stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in which mild symptoms of infection are present, including lymphadenopathy, fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and diarrhea
  53. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    • (AIDS)
    • later stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection when the cells of the immune system lose their ability to fight off infection; patients become unable to resist oportunistic infections
  54. allergist
    physician specializing in diagnosis and treatment of allergies
  55. allergy
    hypersensitivity to a common substance in the environment, to food or to medication
  56. anaphylactic shock
    life-threatening condition resulting from severe allergic reaction causing cardio-vascular and respiratory problems; may be triggered by bee stings, medications, or certian foods; also called anaphylaxis
  57. antihistamine
    medication that blocks effects of histamine released by body during allergic reactions
  58. antinuclear antibody titer
    • (ANA)
    • blood test that determines number of antibodies against cell nuclei present in bloodstream; elevated in autoimmune conditions
  59. autoimmune disease
    disease resulting from body's immune system attacking it's own cells as if they were pathogens; examples include systemic lupus erythematosus and sarcoidosis
  60. corticosteroids
    hormones produced by adrenal cortes; used as medication to treat autoimmune diseases due to their very strong anti-inflammatory properties
  61. cytotoxic cells
    cells capable of physically attacking and killing pathogens or diseased cells
  62. elephantiasis
    results from blockage of lymphatic vessels that causes extreme tissue edema
  63. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    • (ELISA)
    • blood test for antibody to acquired immunodeficiency syndrom (AIDS) virus; positive result means the person has been exposed to virus
  64. hives
    common name for appearance of wheals during allergic reaction
  65. Hodgkin disease
    • (HD)
    • cancer of lymphatic cells found in lymph nodes; also called Hodgkin lymphoma
  66. immunodeficiency
    having an immune system that is unable to respond properly to pathogens; also called immunocompromised
  67. immunosuppressant
    medication to block certain actions of immune system; used to prevent rejection of transplanted organ
  68. inflammation
    tissue reponse to injury; characterized by redness, pain, swelling, and feeling hot to touch
  69. Kaposi sarcoma
    • (KS)
    • type of skin cancer often seen in patients with AIDS; consists of brownish-purple papules that begin in skin and spread to internal organs
  70. mononucleosis
    • (mono)
    • acute viral infection of lymphatic tissue with large number of abnormal white blood cells circulating in bloodstream
  71. non-Hodgkin lymphoma
    • (NHL)
    • cancer of the lyphatic tissues other than Hodgkin lymphoma
  72. opportunistic infections
    infections seen in patients with compromised immune systems
  73. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    • (PCP)
    • opportunistic infection common in immunodeficient persons
  74. sarcoidosis
    autoimmune disease with fibrous lesions forming in lymph nodes, liver, skin, lungs, spleen, eyes, and small bones of hands and feet
  75. scratch test
    type of allergy testing in which body is exposed to allergens through a light scratch in skin
  76. severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome
    • (SCIDS)
    • genetic condition of children born with nonfunctioning immune system who often farced to live in sealed sterile rooms
  77. systemic lupus erythematosus
    • (SLE)
    • autoimmune disease in which immune system attacks connective tissue throughout body such as in joints and skin
  78. urticaria
    severe itching associated with hives, usually seen in allergic reactions to food, stress, or medications
  79. vaccination
    exposure to weakened pathogen to stimulate immune response and antibody production to give future protections against full blown disease; also called immunization
  80. Western blot test
    blood test to detect various antibodies in bloodstream such as HIV antibodies; considered more precise than ELIZA

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