Aristotle - "On the Soul"

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kang
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Aristotle - "On the Soul"
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2012-02-29 04:41:28
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Ancient Philosophy
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On the Soul
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  1. to on
    being, that which is
  2. ousia
    thinghood, an independent thing
  3. pathos
    attribute
  4. ergon
    work, activity
  5. dunamis
    potency
  6. tode ti
    a this
  7. choriston
    separate
  8. prote philosophia
    first philosophy, metaphysics
  9. aporiai
    impasses
  10. stoicheia
    things in a row, letters, elements
  11. nous
    intellect
  12. harmonia
    a joining (in carpentry), an attunement, a harmony
  13. soma // psuche
    body // soul
  14. hule // eidos, morphe
    material // invisible look, shapeliness
  15. dunamis // entelecheia
    potency // being-at-work-staying-itself
  16. hupokeimenon
    underlying thing
  17. to ti en einai
    what keeps on being in order to be at all
  18. ousia he kata ton logon
    thinghood as it is revealed in speech
  19. What is the central notion, the soul of the soul?
    entelecheia
  20. How did Aristotle invent the word entelecheia?
    Aristotle combined enteles (complete) with echein (to be by actively staying in some condition, to hold on as such-and-such a thing) in such a way that the combination is a pun on endelecheia (continuity, persistence).
  21. What is the body for the soul?
    The body (soma) is material (hule) for the soul (psuche).
  22. What is the soul for the body?
    The soul (psuche) is the invisible look (eidos) and shapeliness (morphe) of the body (soma).
  23. What does the body have for the being-at-work-staying-itself (entelecheia) that forms it?
    The body has being as a potency (dunamis) for the being-at-work-staying-itself (entelecheia) that forms it.
  24. What are the three senses in which the soul is the being-at-work-staying-itself of the living thing?
    • First, in constantly maintaining the body as the kind of thing it is and maintaining its kind, the soul is nutritive (threptike) and reproductive (gennetike).
    • Second, in being aware of pleasure and pain that transforms the need to take in material into appetite and desire, the soul is perceptive (aisthetike).
  25. threptike
    nutritive
  26. gennetike
    reproductive
  27. aisthetike
    perceptive
  28. energein
    being-at-work
  29. paschein
    being acted-upon
  30. Kinds of thinking: doxazein
    to suppose, to have an opinion
  31. Kinds of thinking: epistasthai
    to know
  32. Kinds of thingking: theorein
    to contemplate
  33. Kinds of thinking: logizesthai
    to reason
  34. Kinds of thinking: noein
    to think, to contemplate
  35. Kinds of thinking: phantazesthai
    to imagine
  36. What is knowledge considered to be?
    something beautiful and honored
  37. Two ways in which all things are moved
    • in virtue of something else
    • in virtue of themselves
  38. Four sorts of motion
    • change of place
    • alteration
    • wasting away
    • growing
  39. What do we mean by "life"?
    self-nourishing as well as growth and wasting away
  40. Definition of Soul
    The soul is a being-at-work-staying-itself of the first kind of a natural, organized body having life as a potency.
  41. Potencies of the soul
    • nutrition
    • perception
    • motion with respect to place
    • thinking things through
  42. What is the potency present in plant's soul?
    nutritive
  43. What is the potency present when the perceptive potency is present?
    the potency of appetite
  44. What is one sense possessed by all animals?
    touch
  45. What is the common assumption of the ancients with regard to the motion of the soul?
    They suppose that what is not itself in motion could not move something else. Thus, because soul is that which produces motion, it is itself in motion.
  46. What does Democritus think the soul is?
    Democritus opines that the soul is some sort of fire or heat because both fire and soul have a nature to be moved. Furthermore, believing that spherical shape is the shape most suited to motion, he claims that the souls are those atoms that are spherical because they are able to move the rest while moving also themselves.
  47. What was the one overarching view of the soul and its motion?
    Motion is the thing that is most proper to the soul. Hence, because whatever is moved is moved by the soul, the soul is moved by itself.
  48. What is one of the most general ways (genus) of being?
    Thinghood
  49. What is thinghood (ousia)?
    Thinghood is the way of being that belongs to anything which has attributes but is not an attribute of anything, which is also separate and a this.
  50. What is material (hule)?
    Material is that which underlies the form of any particular thing and in its own right is not a this. Having no properties of its own, it is a potency straining toward some form.
  51. What is form (eidos, morphe)?
    Form is a being-at-work as a result of which something is called a this. Morphe means shapeliness, which implies the act of shaping a thing, and eidos is an invisible look of a thing, seen only in speech.
  52. What are the three sorts of thinghood?
    • Material (potency)
    • Form (being-at-work-staying-itself)
    • what is made out of material and form (a this)
  53. What are the two senses in which the form is a being-at-work-staying-itself?
    • knowledge
    • act of contemplating
  54. What does "a this" mean?
    A this is that which comes forth to meet perception as a ready-made, independent whole. It is something that can be pointed at because it holds together as separate from its surroundings.
  55. What does Peripatetic mean?
    Peripatetic means walking or traveling about. This pertains to Aristotle, who taught philosophy while walking in the Lyceum of ancient Athens.
  56. What is the method Aristotle utilized in On the Soul?
    Dialectic Method
  57. In Aristotle's logical works, what does "dialectic" refer to?
    It refers to reasoning from premises that are probable, in the sense of generally accepted.
  58. What does doxa mean?
    It means opinion, frequently contrasted with real knowledge in ancient philosophy.
  59. Two types of objects
    • phusis
    • techne
  60. Definition of Ontology
    Ontology is the branch of metaphysical enquiry concerned with the study of existence itself.
  61. What is hylomorphism?
    It is the metaphysical doctrine that every natural object is somehow composed of matter and form.
  62. What are the two fundamental forces in nature according to Atomists?
    • undivisible things: tiny hard particles, infinite in number and variety
    • void: empty space, like a box containing hard particles
  63. What does perception bring along with it?
    • locomotion
    • orientation in space
    • prey-predator relationship
    • desire, aversion, fear
    • change in reproductive component
  64. What is potency?
    Potency is the innate tendency of anything to be at work in ways characteristic of the kind of thing it is; the way of being that belongs to material. A potency, in its proper sense, will always emerge into activity when the proper conditions are present and nothing prevents it.
  65. What is being-at-work-staying-itself?
    It is a fusion of the idea of completeness with that of continuity or persistence. Aristotle invents the word by combining ...

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