a joining (in carpentry), an attunement, a harmony
soma // psuche
body // soul
hule // eidos, morphe
material // invisible look, shapeliness
dunamis // entelecheia
potency // being-at-work-staying-itself
to ti en einai
what keeps on being in order to be at all
ousia he kata ton logon
thinghood as it is revealed in speech
What is the central notion, the soul of the soul?
How did Aristotle invent the word entelecheia?
Aristotle combined enteles (complete) with echein (to be by actively staying in some condition, to hold on as such-and-such a thing) in such a way that the combination is a pun on endelecheia (continuity, persistence).
What is the body for the soul?
The body (soma) is material (hule) for the soul (psuche).
What is the soul for the body?
The soul (psuche) is the invisible look (eidos) and shapeliness (morphe) of the body (soma).
What does the body have for the being-at-work-staying-itself (entelecheia) that forms it?
The body has being as a potency (dunamis) for the being-at-work-staying-itself (entelecheia) that forms it.
What are the three senses in which the soul is the being-at-work-staying-itself of the living thing?
First, in constantly maintaining the body as the kind of thing it is and maintaining its kind, the soul is nutritive (threptike) and reproductive (gennetike).
Second, in being aware of pleasure and pain that transforms the need to take in material into appetite and desire, the soul is perceptive (aisthetike).
Kinds of thinking: doxazein
to suppose, to have an opinion
Kinds of thinking: epistasthai
Kinds of thingking: theorein
Kinds of thinking: logizesthai
Kinds of thinking: noein
to think, to contemplate
Kinds of thinking: phantazesthai
What is knowledge considered to be?
something beautiful and honored
Two ways in which all things are moved
in virtue of something else
in virtue of themselves
Four sorts of motion
change of place
What do we mean by "life"?
self-nourishing as well as growth and wasting away
Definition of Soul
The soul is a being-at-work-staying-itself of the first kind of a natural, organized body having life as a potency.
Potencies of the soul
motion with respect to place
thinking things through
What is the potency present in plant's soul?
What is the potency present when the perceptive potency is present?
the potency of appetite
What is one sense possessed by all animals?
What is the common assumption of the ancients with regard to the motion of the soul?
They suppose that what is not itself in motion could not move something else. Thus, because soul is that which produces motion, it is itself in motion.
What does Democritus think the soul is?
Democritus opines that the soul is some sort of fire or heat because both fire and soul have a nature to be moved. Furthermore, believing that spherical shape is the shape most suited to motion, he claims that the souls are those atoms that are spherical because they are able to move the rest while moving also themselves.
What was the one overarching view of the soul and its motion?
Motion is the thing that is most proper to the soul. Hence, because whatever is moved is moved by the soul, the soul is moved by itself.
What is one of the most general ways (genus) of being?
What is thinghood (ousia)?
Thinghood is the way of being that belongs to anything which has attributes but is not an attribute of anything, which is also separate and a this.
What is material (hule)?
Material is that which underlies the form of any particular thing and in its own right is not a this. Having no properties of its own, it is a potency straining toward some form.
What is form (eidos, morphe)?
Form is a being-at-work as a result of which something is called a this. Morphe means shapeliness, which implies the act of shaping a thing, and eidos is an invisible look of a thing, seen only in speech.
What are the three sorts of thinghood?
what is made out of material and form (a this)
What are the two senses in which the form is a being-at-work-staying-itself?
act of contemplating
What does "a this" mean?
A this is that which comes forth to meet perception as a ready-made, independent whole. It is something that can be pointed at because it holds together as separate from its surroundings.
What does Peripatetic mean?
Peripatetic means walking or traveling about. This pertains to Aristotle, who taught philosophy while walking in the Lyceum of ancient Athens.
What is the method Aristotle utilized in On the Soul?
In Aristotle's logical works, what does "dialectic" refer to?
It refers to reasoning from premises that are probable, in the sense of generally accepted.
What does doxa mean?
It means opinion, frequently contrasted with real knowledge in ancient philosophy.
Two types of objects
Definition of Ontology
Ontology is the branch of metaphysical enquiry concerned with the study of existence itself.
What is hylomorphism?
It is the metaphysical doctrine that every natural object is somehow composed of matter and form.
What are the two fundamental forces in nature according to Atomists?
undivisible things: tiny hard particles, infinite in number and variety
void: empty space, like a box containing hard particles
What does perception bring along with it?
orientation in space
desire, aversion, fear
change in reproductive component
What is potency?
Potency is the innate tendency of anything to be at work in ways characteristic of the kind of thing it is; the way of being that belongs to material. A potency, in its proper sense, will always emerge into activity when the proper conditions are present and nothing prevents it.
What is being-at-work-staying-itself?
It is a fusion of the idea of completeness with that of continuity or persistence. Aristotle invents the word by combining ...