KIN 2509 Ch 9

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dfusel2
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138513
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KIN 2509 Ch 9
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2012-03-01 01:19:42
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cardiology
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Ch 9 Cardiology
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  1. arteriole
    • a minute artery, especially one that, at its distal end, leads into a capillary
    • the smallest of the arteries
  2. atrium
    upper chamber of the heart
  3. capillary
    and of the microscopic blood vessels that connects at the ends of the smallest arteries (arterioles) with the beginnings of the smallest veins (venules) where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
  4. ischemia
    a decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ
  5. metabolism
    • the sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism
    • all energy and material transformations that occur within living cells
  6. pulmonary circulation
    circulation of blood through a network of vessels from the heart to the lungs for the oxygenation of blood and then back again to the heart
  7. pulse
    • the regular, recurrent, expansion and contraction of an artery that corresponds to each beat of the heart
    • it can be felt through the walls of arteries, especially on superficial arteries, such as the radial and carotid arteries
  8. septum
    • a wall, or partition dividing two cavities
    • a partition between the right and left sides of the heart
  9. SA node
    • sinoatrial node
    • area in the right atrium that generates electrical impulses that cause the muscle fibers of both atria to contract
    • AKA the pacemaker of the heart
  10. systemic circulation
    circulation of blood from the body organs (except the lungs) to the heart and back again
  11. ventricle
    lower chamber of the heart
  12. angi/o
    vessel
  13. vascul/o
    vessel
  14. aort/o
    aorta
  15. arteriol/o
    arteriole
  16. arteri/o
    artery
  17. ather/o
    fatty plaque
  18. atri/o
    atrium
  19. angioma
    tumor consisting of blood vessels
  20. aortotomy
    incision of the aorta
  21. arteriolitis
    inflammation of the arteriole wall
  22. arteriorrhexis
    rupture of an artery
  23. atheroschlerosis
    abnormal condition of fatty plaque build up on the inner lining of the artery wall
  24. cardi/o
    heart
  25. hemangi/o
    blood vessel
  26. phleb/o
    vein
  27. ven/o
    vein
  28. scler/o
    hardening, sclera
  29. sphygm/o
    pulse
  30. thromb/o
    blood clot
  31. ventricul/o
    ventricle (of heart or brain)
  32. myocardial
    pertaining to the heart muscle
  33. hemangiectasis
    dilation of a blood vessel
  34. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
  35. sclerosis
    abnormal condition of hardening
  36. sphygmometer
    instrument for measuring blood pressure
  37. thrombus
    condition of stationary blood clot
  38. brady-
    slow
  39. endo-
    in, within
  40. bradycardiac
    pertainig to a slow heart (rate)
  41. endocardium
    • structure within the heart
    • innermost layer of smooth endothelial tissue
  42. -um
    structure, thing
  43. extra-
    outside
  44. peri-
    around
  45. tachy-
    rapid
  46. trans-
    through, across
  47. extravascular
    pertaining to the area outside of a blood vessel
  48. pericardium
    • structure around the heart
    • membranous, fibrous, double-walled sac enclosing the heart
  49. tachycardiac
    pertaining to a rapid heart rate
  50. transaortic
    pertaining to a surgical procedure performed through the aorta
  51. -gram
    record, writing
  52. -graph
    instrument for recording
  53. -graphy
    process of recording
  54. -stenosis
    narrowing, stricture
  55. electrocardiogram
    a record of the electrical activity of the heart
  56. electrocardiogram
    instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart
  57. electrocardiography
    process of recording the electrical activitiy of the heart
  58. arteriostenosis
    narrowing of an artery caused by fatty plaque buildup (atheroma), scar tissue, or a blood clot (thrombus)
  59. aneurysm
    a localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to a congenital defect or weakness in the vessel wall
  60. angina pectoris
    severe pain around the heart caused by a deficiency of oxygen supply to the heart muscle
  61. arrhythmia
    • any deviation from the normal pattern of heartbeat
    • AKA dysrhythmia
    • Ex - flutter and fibrillation
  62. flutter
    a rapid vibration or pulsation, especially of the heart, that may interfere with normal function
  63. fibrillation
    rapid, inefficient, random contractions of the heart that disrupt the normal sinus rhythm of the heart
  64. arteriosclerosis
    a common arterial disorder characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls
  65. atherosclerosis
    the most common form of arteriosclerosis, marked by cholesterol-lipid-calcium deposits in arterial linings
  66. cardiomyopathy
    any disease that affects the structure and function of the heart
  67. coarctation
    a stricture (narrowing) or contraction of the walls of a vessel
  68. coarctation of the aorta
    congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta
  69. congestive heart failure
    abnormal condition that reflects impaired cardiac pumping
  70. coronary artery disease
    any one of the abnormal conditions that may affect the heart's arteries and produce various pathological effects, especially the reduced flow of blood and nutrients to the myocardium
  71. coronary artery spasm
    intermittent constriction of the large coronary arteries
  72. deep vein thrombosis
    a disorder involving a thrombus in one of the deep veins of the body, most commonly the lower leg
  73. embolus
    a mass of undissolved matter, more commonly a blood clot, fatty plaque, or air bubble, which travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel
  74. endocarditis
    abnormal condition that affects the endocardium and heart valves and is characterized by lesions caused by a variety of diseases
  75. heart block
    a condition in which the conductive tissue of the heart fails to conduct impulses normally from the atrium to the ventricles, which results in an alteration of the rhythm of the heartbeat
  76. hemostasis
    the termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means, or by the coagulation process of the body
  77. hyperlipidemia
    excessive amounts of lipid in the blood
  78. hypertension
    • high blood pressure
    • in adults, a condition in which the blood pressure (BP) is higher than 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic on three separate readings recorded several weeks apart
  79. ischemia
    decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ
  80. mitral valve prolapse
    a common and occasionally serious condition in which a cusp or cusps of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole
  81. murmurs
    abnormal sounds heard on auscultation of the heart and adjacent large blood vessels
  82. myocardial infarction
    • necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries
    • AKA heart attack
  83. patent ductus arteriosus
    an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by the failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth (seen primarily in premature infants)
  84. palpitations
    a pounding or racing of the heart
  85. pericardial effusion
    a buildup of fluid in the pericardial space that is a common complication of pericarditis and other various causes
  86. peripheral arterial disease
    a systemic form of atherosclerosis in which blood flow is restricted by an intra-arterial accumulation of soft deposits of lipids and fibrin that harden over time
  87. Raynaud phenomenon
    numbness in fingers and toes due to attacks of vasoconstrictions of arterioles in the skin
  88. rheumatic heart disease
    damage to heart muscle and heart valves caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
  89. septal defect
    an abnormal, usually congenital defect in the wall separating the two chambers of the heart
  90. tetralogy of Fallot
    • congenital anomaly that consists of four defects:
    • pulmonary artery stenosis
    • ventricular septal defect
    • malposition of the aorta so that it arises from the septal defect or right ventricle
    • right ventricular hypertrophy
  91. thrombus
    • an aggregation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and the cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery, sometimes occluding the lumen of a vessel
    • AKA blood clot
  92. thrombophlebitis
    inflammation of a vein in conjunction with the formation of a thrombus
  93. varicose veins
    a twisted, dilated vein with incompetent valves, most commonly found in the saphenous veins of the lower legs
  94. aortography
    radiography of the aorta after the injection of an opaque contrast medium
  95. angiography
    • diagnostic or therapeutic radiography of the heart and blood vessles using a radiopaque contrast medium
    • Ex - magnetic resonance imaging, interventional radiography, computed tomography
  96. digital subtraction angiography
    a computer technique used to investigate arterial blood circulation
  97. Doppler ultrasonography
    technique for detecting the movement of blood flow
  98. duplex scanning
    visualization of the venous system through an ultrasound machine (duplex scanner) to determine the direction of blood flow within the veins; useful in diagnosing thrombophlebitis
  99. echocardiography
    • use of ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures and the motion of the heart
    • AKA ultrasonic cardiography
  100. transesophageal echocardiography
    obtaining images through the chest wall by using a probe that is swallowed into the esophagus
  101. cardiac enzyme studies
    a battery of blood tests performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage
  102. coagulation tests
    a group of tests performed to determine the clotting ability of blood for purposes of diagnosis of clotting disorders and monitoring anticoagulant therapy
  103. lipid profile
    • a batter of blood tests to measure fatty substances, including cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins
    • used to evaluate the risk of developing coronary artery disease
  104. troponin I
    a blood test that measures protein that is released into the blood by damaged heart muscle (but not skeletal muscle) and therefore is a highly sensitive and specific indicator of recent MI
  105. cardiac catheterization
    insertion of a catheter (thin, flexible tube) through an incision into a large vein, usually of an arm (brachial approach) or leg (femoral approach); the catheter is threaded through the circulatory system into the heart
  106. Holter monitor test
    • the use of a portable device small enough to be worn by a patient during normal activity
    • consists of an electrocardiograph and a recording system capable of storing up to 48 hrs of the individual's electrocardiogram record
  107. electrocardiography
    the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart
  108. stress test
    • a method of evaluating cardiovascular fitness
    • while exercising, usually on a treadmill, the individual is subjected to steadily increasing levels of work
  109. aneurysmectomy
    surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm
  110. angioplasty
    any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores forward blood flow
  111. laser coronary angioplasty
    the use of laser energy to vaporize an atherosclerotic plaque in a diseased coronary vessel
  112. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    • a method of treating localized coronary artery narrowing
    • a special double-lumen catheter is designed so that a cylindrical balloon surrounds a portion of it
    • after the catheter is inserted transcutaneously in the artery, inflation of the balloon dilates the narrowed vessel
  113. anastomosis
    a surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one segment to the other
  114. atherectomy
    surgical removal of an atheroma in a major artery
  115. automated implanted cardioverter defibrillator
    a surgically implanted device, about the size of a pacemaker, that automatically detects and corrects life-threatening dysrhythmias
  116. coronary artery bypass surgery
    • a procedure to create a detour or bypass around blockages
    • it increases the blood flow to the myocardial muscle and involves bypass grafts to the coronary arteries that reroute the blood flow around the occluded coronary atery
  117. endarterectomy
    surgical removal of the innermost lining of an artery
  118. intraluminal coronary artery stent placement
    • surgical insertion of a stent (small, self-expanding meshlike tube) at the site of a blocked artery by a deflated balloon
    • once the balloon is inflated, it expands and the stent opens up the blocked artery
  119. pacemaker
    electrical device used to perform the function of the natural pacemaker of the heart
  120. pericardicentesis / pericardiocentesis
    surgical puncture of the pericardium to remove excess fluid in the pericardial sac
  121. valve replacement
    replacement of a defective heart valve with a prosthesis
  122. valvuloplasty
    plastic or restorative surgery on a valve, especially a cardiac valve
  123. balloon valvuloplasty
    • insertion of a balloon catheter to open a stenotic heart valve
    • inflating the balloon decreases the constriction
    • Treats mitral or pulmonic stenosis
  124. vena cava filter
    surgical placement of a filter into the inferior vena cava, preventing clots from traveling to the lungs without hindering blood flow
  125. cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    the process of ventilating and circulating blood for a patient in cardiopulmonary arrest, usually by combining mouth-to-mouth ventilation with external chest compressions
  126. defibrillation / cardioversion
    an electrical device called a defibrillator delivers shocks at a preset voltage to the heart to convert fibrillation and life-threatening dysrhythmias back to a normal rhythm
  127. thrombolytic therapy
    the administration of drugs to dissolve an arterial clot
  128. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
    drugs used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure; decrease blood pressure, pulmonary resistance, and heart size
  129. antianginals
    drugs that relieve angina pectoris by vasodilation
  130. antiarrhythmics
    drugs used to control irregular heartbeat
  131. anticoagulants
    drugs that prevent clot formation
  132. beta-adrenergic blockers
    drugs that decrease the rate and force of heart contractions, among other effects
  133. calcium channel blockers
    • drugs that control the rate and force of the heart's contractions by regulating the influx of calcium ions into the cells
    • they also cause dilation of blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood through the vessels
  134. cardiac glysides, digitalis
    drugs that slow and strengthen heart muscle contractions
  135. diuretics
    drugs that eliminate fluid by increasing urine output by the kidneys
  136. thrombolytics
    drugs that dissolve clots
  137. ACLS
    advanced cardiac life support
  138. AICD
    automated implanted cardioverter defibrillator
  139. AS
    • aortic stenosis
    • left ear (auris sinistra)
  140. ASD
    atrial septal defect
  141. ASHD
    arteriosclerotic heart disease
  142. AV
    atrioventricular
  143. BP
    blood pressure
  144. CABG
    coronary artery bypass graft
  145. CAD
    coronary artery disease
  146. Cath
    catheterization, catheter
  147. CCU
    coronary care unit
  148. CHD
    coronary heart disease
  149. CHF
    congestive heart failure
  150. CK
    creatine kinase
  151. CKMB
    a creatine kinase isoenzyme [not an abbreviation]
  152. CPK
    creatine phosphokinase
  153. CPR
    cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  154. CV
    cardiovascular
  155. dL
    deciliter
  156. DOE
    dyspnea on exertion
  157. DSA
    digital subtraction angiography
  158. DVT
    deep vein thrombosis
  159. ECG/EKG
    electrocardiogram
  160. EMS
    emergency medical service(s)
  161. HDL
    high-density lipoprotein
  162. HPI
    history of present illness
  163. LBBB
    left bundle branch block
  164. LDL
    low-density lipoprotein
  165. LDLC
    low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  166. LV
    left ventricle
  167. MI
    myocardial infarction
  168. mL
    milliliter
  169. MVP
    mitral valve prolapse
  170. NIR
    brand name of an arterial stent made by Medinol Ltd.
  171. NSR
    normal sinus rhythm
  172. NTG
    nitroglycerin
  173. PAC
    premature atrial contraction
  174. PAD
    peripheral artery disease
  175. PAT
    paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
  176. PTCA
    percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  177. PVC
    premature ventricular contraction
  178. RBBB
    right bundle branch block
  179. RB
    • residual volume
    • right ventricle
  180. SA
    sinoatrial
  181. TEE
    transesophageal echocardiography
  182. TOT CHOL
    total cholesterol
  183. TT
    thrombolytic therapy
  184. VSD
    ventricular septal defect
  185. VT
    ventricular tachycardia

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