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2012-02-28 20:00:49
vet tech pharmacology chapter pharmacodynamics set

vet tech pharmacology chapter 2 pharmacodynamics set
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  1. Pharmacodynamics
    • th study of the mechanisms by which drugs produce physiologic changes in the body
    • how the drug exerts its effect in the body - what it does when it gets where it's going
    • how it works at the cellular level - what are the cell activities
    • drugs may enhance or depress the physiologic activity of a cell
  2. Agonist
    • increases activity in a cell
    • has a high level of affinity and efficacy to create a specific action within a cell
    • drugs that occupy receptors and activate them
    • agonist alone will fully activate the receptor
    • agonist combined with antagonist will partially activate the receptor (slows down activation)
  3. Partial Agonist
    lower level of affinity
  4. Affinity
    tendency of a drug to bind with a receptor
  5. Receptors
    • location where the drug binds to create an action
    • may be on the cell membrane or in the interior of the cell (penetrate the cell membrane)
  6. Antagonist
    • blocks an agonist from binding with a receptor
    • drugs that occupy receptors, but do not activate them
  7. Efficacy
    • degree to which the drug produces the desired effect in a given patient
    • e.g. one dose vs. 3 because every body is different
    • degree to which drug binds to its receptor helps determine this
    • over time, body gets more efficient at getting rid of drug through the liver
  8. Prostoglandins
    mediator of pain
  9. Runners
    have a narcotics analog
  10. Pharmacoindications
    different breeds may need different drugs
  11. Agonist binding to a receptor
    • actions that may occur:
    • - stimulation - eg caffeine
    • - irritation - eg capsacin
    • - depression - eg local anesthesia
    • - cell death - eg chemotherapy
  12. Potency
    • amount of drug required to produce desired response
    • how many mg do we need to give a measurable response based on blood level in average person
  13. Therapeutic index
    relationship between the abiliey to produce a desired effect vs a toxic effect
  14. ED50
    • effective dose
    • 50% respond
  15. LD50
    lethal dose in 50%
  16. LD50/ED50
    the larger the number the safer the drug
  17. Adverse drug effects
    • undesirable response to a drug
    • causes:
    • - quality of the product - impurities
    • - quantity - overdose
    • symptoms range from:
    • - urticaria - hives
    • - shock - anaphylaxis
    • - photosensitivity - blister when exposed to sunlight
    • expected - in package insert
    • unexpected - idiosyncratic drug reaction - report to FDA
  18. Drug interactions
    • altered pharmacologic response to a drug caused by the presence of another drug
    • - may be positive or negative (can clog up liver passage)
    • pharmacokinetics:
    • - plasma or tissue levels altered
    • - absorption, distribution, metabolization, excretion
    • pharmacodynamics:
    • - action or effect is altered - agonist/antagonists or synergists
    • pharmaceutic:
    • - chemical reaction occurs due to mixing prior to administration
    • - eg Amphotericin-B & Diazepam forms a precipitate
  19. Herbs
    are drugs too
  20. Naming drugs
    drugs have multiple names
  21. Chemical name
    • based on molecular structure
    • used in laboratory
    • eg 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-methyl-aminocyclohexanone
  22. Code or lab name
    • used in research
    • for company: usually will not give any clue as to what research is about
    • used in clinical trial reports
    • eg CL-581
  23. Compendial US Pharmocopeia (standard reference for all legal drugs in US)
    • standards for quality
    • when goes on market
    • generic name
    • eg Ketamine
  24. Official
    same as compendial
  25. Proprietary or trade name
    • name chosen by manufacturing company
    • brand name
    • patented - chemical formulation
    • name protected by federal trademark and copyright laws
    • upper case R in a circle on label/in print
    • proper noun
    • eg Ketalar (company?), Ketaset (Fort Dodge), Ketaject (company?), Ketaved (Vedco)
  26. Generic name
    • not owned by the company
    • common name
    • lower case in print
    • eg Ketamine
  27. Drug labeling
    • has federal component & state component
    • drug labels - Center for Veterinary Medicine @ FDA
    • drug name - trade & generic
    • concentration (usually in mg/unit [mls or tablets]) and quantity
    • name and address of manufacturer
    • controlled substance status - C & I-V
    • manufacturer lot #
    • expiration date - some get less effective, some more, some toxic (eg tetracycline - kidney toxic)
    • instructions for use and possible adverse effects
    • insert - PDR, formulary (name, most common administration forms, doses), online
    • responsibility of reseller (vet, pharmacy) to ensure client understands label directions, specifically tech
    • responsibility of tech to check label to ensure accuracy & check bottle to make sure it is correct medicine
  28. National Drug Code
    • federal government trying to institute to minimize counterfeiting drugs (human only @ this time)
    • 10 digit number
    • bar code for pharmaceuticals intended for human use
    • closely related to UPC found on most products
  29. Development & Approval of new drugs
    • agencies involved: FDA, EPA, USDA
    • FDA:
    • - Food & Drug Administration
    • - development & approval of new animal drugs via Center for Veterinary Medicine
    • - costs company $15-20 million and 7-10 years to bring new drug to market
    • - this is why so few new drugs approved for animal use (small market)
    • - special center that works with vets to get research to label drugs for animals or get extralabel usage
    • EPA:
    • - animal topical pesticides
    • - controversy over flea resistance
    • USDA:
    • - influence food supply
    • - biologicals - eg vaccine
    • - FARAD - Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank
    • -- drug residue in the food supply
    • -- investigated contaminated milk/meat
    • -- may result in upping withdrawl times
  30. New Drug Approval Process:
    • see diagram in slides
    • lab in Bar Harbor that can genetically engineer a line of mice with whatever condition you want
    • there are fast tracks for urgently needed drugs, eg vaccine for emerging disease
    • stages of process for human drugs (animal drugs tested on animal its for):
    • - preliminary trials - cell cultures in Petri dish
    • - preclinical (animal) trials - species that most closely resembles process in humans
    • - clinical trials - humans; if veterinary drug, usually beagles
    • Green book - list of all animal drugs -
  31. Prescribing drugs
    • written prescription
    • owner acquires medicine from a third party
    • if they ask for a prescription to take elsewhere, vet legally must give it
    • federal felony to sign a prescription pad that is not yours
  32. Dispensing drugs
    • the actual selling of the product through your office
    • local human pharmacy
    • - make it very clear to pharmacy that this is for an animal
    • - animal dosages are sometimes much larger than human and pharmacist may decide decimal got moved
    • internet veterinary pharmacies
    • cannot make client buy pharmaceuticals from your office