Modern France Midterm
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Charter of 1814
- Louis XVIII
- "Gift to the People"
- Says he won't take the land that had been divided up after the Revolution (Which was taken from the church and the Aristrocrats)
- Since it was a gift the people were afraid that he was going to take the charter and the land.
- One of the reasons he instated the Charter of 1814 was so that he could convinve the people that he was there to serve them, therefore "Popularizing the Monarch, Royalizing the Nation".
- It also imposed Popular Soverigny to males over 21 and making a certain income. Established to keep the Aristrocay's voting power, but making it seem like the people had power.
For two weeks in July of 1830. The Bourgeoisie people were done with Charles X. They chases the aristrocrats out of the Hotel de Ville (the city hall) and mobed the city of Paris. Marmont and his troops waited outside Paris for instruction, which they never recieved. The Bourgeosie made Louis Phillipe king.
- They run out during the Revolution.
- They land was divided up and given to the rest of the French People.
- When they came back their land back. Land equals money equals power. So they wanted their power back.
- They wanted to get rid of Liberalism and France to be Pre-revolution.
- Had a majority in the Chamber of Deputies until 1826 when the Liberalists won the elections
Gen. Louis Cavignac
- Was the leader of the French Army while they were stationed in Algeria. He was harsh and had no problem brutally killing anyone. When the startving people of Paris took up arms he was sent there to take out anyone who resisted. He open fired upon the barrakades for three days before order was restored.
The Chamber of Deputies opened up National Workshops to give jobs to the numerous jobless proletariats because they felt obligated to ensure the people had jobs. The Bourgeosie was angry that the government was taking their money and giving it to the poor people, who they saw as not working hard enough to earn their own. When then national workshops were dismanatled, by an election overrun by the Bourgeosie, the proletarits in Paris took up arms which began the June Days.
- Before the Revolution the Bourbon Families ruled France. After the Revolution Napoleon Bonaparte named himself emperor. Napoleon was thrown out and Louis XVIII became king.
- Louis had to balance the wants of the Aristrocrats and the wants of the Bourgeosie. He didn't want the Bourgeosie to get angry and start another revolution, yet he didn't want to give all the power to the people. He was successful because he gave the people the Charter of 1814, popular soverignty (even though it is limited), and allowed the Chamber of Deputies to exist. The Bourgeoisie was given power with the charter and kept cool with popular soverignty. The Ultra-Royalist were kept happy because they ran the Chamber of Deputies. After Louis XVIII died Charles X took over.
Charles wanted to be a feudal monarch. He did not balance the needs and allowed the Ultra-Royalists to take over. His prime minister Jules Armand De Polignae did a lot of the ruling while Charles X was in office. Polignae instated the law of sacrilage, which ment anyone who spoke against the catholic church was executed or sent to Algeria, land endimnification, all the land taken from the aristrocract had to be paid for, and gave the people freedom of the press then took it away. The Bourgeoisie led by Pierier and Laffitte stormed the Hotel de Ville and took up arms in the streets. This is known as the July Revolution Charles X was thrown out of power also ending the Bourbon reign for the time. The Bourbon Restoration was more successful under Louis XVIII because he paid attention to all the different classes under his rule in 1830.
Rule of Bourgeoisie
The Bourgeoisie was made up of the Bankers and Merchants. With the election of 1826 the liberalist took control over the Chamber of Deputies; this was a huge win wor the Bourgeoisie because most of them were liberalist. Believed the government was obligated to the people which ment that they all had jobs but this was contradictory because when the government took the Bourgeoisie's money and invested it in the National Workshops they got angry and voted them away. They wanted Liberalism and popular soverignty. They wanted a seperation of church and state education.
They liked Louis XVIII because he worked with them. He gave them the charter of 1814 and popular soverignty. But was weary that he was going to take it all away. They did not like his successor Charles X and his prime minister Polignae because the let the Ultra-Royalist take over with the instatement of the Law of Sacrilage, land indemnification and dissolusion of the National Guard. When they led the July Revolution in brought in Louis Philippe, who was a Bourgeoisie.
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