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  1. in matching a hypothesized phylogeny and fossil record
    • a lineage ma aquire its characters much later than when it actually diverged
    • species may have migrated and fossilized looking like it would have been sooner than it was
  2. phyletic gradualism
    new species evolve by gradual transformation and divergence of ancestral species into descendant species, no node
  3. Gould
    founder affect speciation, abrupt appearance of closely related species , not to higher taxa
  4. puntuated erquilibrium
    long periods of no evolutionary change then rapid shifts from one speciation to another
  5. punctuated anagenesis
    observation that some characters evolve over time without speciation, without a node, can have a group where there is no evidence of cladogenesis in the fossil record
  6. Haldane
    change of 1 sd of the character mean size per generation, standard deviation
  7. LUCA
    last universal common ancestor 3.8bya
  8. 4.6bya
    beginning of solar system
  9. 3.5bya
    earliest prokaryotes
  10. 2.2bya
    reducing atmosphere changes to oxidative atmosphere
  11. 2bya
    evolution of eukaryotes
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