HIST 3610 Midterm
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Dr. Edward Bancroft
Revolutionary War. American physician, first double-agent spy during American Revolution. He worked for Benjamin Franklin, but after death he was found to be a Loyalist reporting back to London on dealings between France and US.
Culper Spy Ring
Revolutionary War. Most successful network set up by Major BenjaminTallmadge to gather intelligence on the movement of General Sir Henry Clinton’s troops after the occupation of New York City. They reported to Washington. Revealed that Benedict Arnold was a traitor
Revolutionary War. First cryptanalyst. "Father of cryptanalytics." Informed Washington with decrypted British messages so Washington could analyze them as a whole.
Civil War. He also became McClellan's intelligence chief. He discovered and saved Lincoln from an assassination plot that planned to kill him while he changed trains to Baltimore en route to his inauguration. While at first Lincoln did not believe Pinkerton, the secretary of state – William H. Seward – convinced him that the plot was true. Thus, Lincoln secretly switched trains and spent a night in a train car under a female spies names. This ended up as a joke in the press, saying Lincoln fled dressed as a woman. Therefore, Lincoln was hesitant to promote his own security due to the ridicule in the future. Pinkerton also demonstrated the idea of "Politicalization," when a spy overestimates/embellishes the number of troops the enemy has. For example, Robert E. Lee had 40,000-45,000 men; Pinkerton tells McClellan that Lee has 98,000 troops who then tells Lincoln that Lee has 170,000 troops in Richmond
WWI. Formed in 1917. Led by Walter Lippmann. Made Wilson better informed about conditions in Europe than European leaders themselves. It was the first time intelligence was used to make sense of the information, (ie. Analysis) Analysis was American invention
Black Tom Affair
WWI. German sabotage of a New York harbor to prevent munitions from being sent to allied forces during WWI. Showed lack of US counterespionage. Major reason why US entered the war.
Sir William Wiseman
WWI. British agent sent to US to convince Wilson to join the Allies in WWI. Acted as a trusted liaison between Wilson and the British government.
WW1. German message to Mexico telling them to attack US for the return of all its territories (Arizona, Texas). British bring in US representatives to convince Americans the telegram is real. Wilson gives them the telegram to the press, bringing a wave of US enthusiasm to go to war with Germany.
Office of Naval Intelligence. Established in 1882, oldest member of the US intelligence community, senior intelligence agency in the armed forces. Responsible for counterespionage and countersabotage.
WWI. "Father of US cryptology." Head of Black Chamber. US cryptanalysis office in NY was in charge of decrypting Japanese messages. Broke Japanese diplomatic code, and during Washington Conference, it allowed US to negotiate a 5-2 ratio of US to Japanese ships. Secretary of State Stimson under President Hoover cuts all funding for the Black Chamber during Great Depression; Yardley writes a book outlining how the Black Chamber broke Japanese code. The Japanese pay Yardley to stop working on their code, but Yardley goes to work for the Chinese against Japan in 1930, then for the Canadians after WWII breaks out. He never gets involved in US cryptanalysis again
WWII. American spy. Spoke 5 languages, worked under Vichy government in France through the British Special Operations Executive (SOE), coordinating the resistance effort. Escaped from the Germans to Spain and eventually joined the OSS Special Operations branch, again coordinating the French resistance. Donovan awarded her Distinguished Service Cross for her service at the end of the war.
WWII. Head of OSS, named Coordinator of Intelligence (COI) in 1941. Won medal of honor in WWI. Had many east coast connections due to his law practice (supported some people's claims that the OSS was a group of commie sympathizers). Under his leadership the OSS would eventually conduct successful espionage and sabotage operations in Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, but it was kept out of South America and South Pacific/Far East.
Head of Army Signals Intelligence Service (SIS) in 1929 which was the successor to the Black Chamber. In 1920s, SIS only had only 10 employees, but grew in WWII when SIS built Purple Analog Machine, which could decipher codes faster than Japanese analogue machines and revolutionzied American intelligence for Japanese diplomatic traffic
WWI cryptography department of the US led by Herbert Yardley. Telegraph companies sent all Japanese diplomatic messages through the Black Chamber. Yardley broke Japanese diplomatic code, allowing US to negotiate a 5-2 ratio of US to Japanese ships. During Great Depression, Secretary of State Stimson under President Hoover cuts all funding for the Black Chamber.
1908, first director of the Bureau of Investigation, which eventually became the FBI.
1919-20, attempts by US Dept of Justice to arrest left wing radicals led by Attorney General Palmer, during the Red Scare after WWI. Arrested thousands of people, less than 1000 were deported as aliens.
WWII Navy SIGINT department. Created by Laurence Stafford in 1930's to deal with Japanese cryptanalysis. Prior to WWII in charge of deciphering JN-25 but could not break it until after Pearl Harbor attack from Japan.
Japanese Analog Machine
PURPLE. Created by Friedman and the Army's SIS, could read Purple faster than the Japanese. In 1941, 14-part message comes to DC, US read it before the japanese and it says "war inevitable," "break relations," "destroy codes and ciphers." US doesn't know where the attack will come, FDR warns commanders at Pearl Harbor that war with Japan was coming, but Purple did not tell where
WWII Japanese Naval Code. US Navy's OP-20-G was in charge of deciphering the code, but was unsuccessful until after Pearl Harbor, but continued to collect enciphered messages, by April 1942 the code had been broken (by Rochefort) and they read clearly that Japan was planning attack Pearl Harbor. Japanese never changed the code for all of WWII.
WWII. In charge of Navy HYPO office in Hawaii, begin to attack JN-25 after Pearl Harbor attack and broke it by April 1942. Convinced that Japanese navy will next attack Midway and tries to convince head of US fleet in Pacific, but Washington's Redmond brothers control US Navy and do not believe Rochefort because they think the next target is the Aleutian Islands. In Japanese codes, Rochefort believes AF means Midway: Rochefort tells Midway to say over radio that they are short of water, Japanese next send a message saying "AF short of water" --proves Rochefort is right. Redmond brothers still don't believe him, but Nimitz does-- saves Midway.
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