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2012-03-01 14:54:46
Chapter Medical Terminology Health Professionals 6E Cardiovascular Medication Diagnosis Treatment

Ch5 Medical Terminology Cardivascular Part 5 - Diagnosis, Medication & Treatment
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  1. Diagnostic tests include:
    1. Blood tests

    • 2. Ultrasonic diagnostic procedures:
    • .....a. Carotid ultrasonography
    • .....b. Echocardiograpy
    • .....c. Doppler echocardiogram
    • .....d. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)
    • .....e. Duplex ultrasound

    3. Angiography

    4. Cardiac catheterization

    5. Digital subtraction angiography

    6. Phlebography

    • 7. Electrocardiography:
    • .....a. Electrocardiogram
    • .....b. Holter monitor
    • .....c. Stress test
    • .....d. Thallium stress test
  2. Treatment Procedures for Cardiovascular System
    • 1. Antihypertensive medications:
    • .....a. ACE inhibitor
    • .....b. Beta-blocker
    • .....c. Calcium channel blocker agents
    • .....d. Diuretic

    • 2. Anticoagulant medications:
    • .....a. Aspirin
    • .....b. Coumadin (Warfarin)

    • 3. Thrombolytic medications:
    • .....a. Clot-busting drugs
    • .....b. Tissue plasminogen activator

    • 4. Cholesterol-lowering medications
    • .....a. Statins
    • .....b. Niacin
    • .....c. Used to control hyperlipdemia

    • 5. Other Medications:
    • .....a. Digitalis (strengthens heart beat)
    • .....b. Antiarrythmic medications (control irregularities of heartbeat)

    • 6. Vasocontrictor medications:
    • .....a. Antihistamines
    • .....b. Decongestants
    • .....c. Cause blood vessels to narrow

    • 7. Vasodilator medications:
    • .....a. Nitroglycerin
    • .....b. Cause blood vessels to expand

    • 8. Procedures to Clear Blocked Arteries:
    • .....a. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    • .....b. Atherectomy
    • .....c. Caratid endarterectomy

    • 9. Coronary Artery Bypass procedures:
    • .....a. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    • .....b. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass graft (keyhole or buttonhole bypass)

    • 10. Procedures to Treat Arrhythmias:
    • .....a. Defibrillation
    • .....b. Automated External Defibrillation (AED)
    • .....c. Artifical pacemaker
    • .....d. Implantable cardioverter difibrillator
    • .....e. Valvopasty (or valvuloplasty)
    • .....f. Cariopulmonary resuscitation

    • 11. Procedures for Blood Vessels & Bleeding:
    • .....a. Aneurysmectomy
    • .....b. Aneurysmorrhaphy
    • .....c. Arteriectomy
    • .....d. Hemostatis (control bleeding)
    • .....e. Plasmapheresis
  3. Echocardiogram
    1. Special type of ultrasonic diagnostic procedure that can be done to observe the heart.

    • 2. It is used to visualize and evaluate heart function, including:
    • .....a. Structures
    • .....b. Functions
    • .....c. Motions

    3. The process is called echocardiography.

    NOTE: This is different from an electrocardiogram that measures electrical activity in the heart and is used to look for arrhythmias.
  4. Doppler echocardiogram
    1. Ultrasonic diagnostic procedure performed in same way as echocardiogram EXCEPT that

    2. Using Doppler technology can also see how blood flows within the heart.

    3. Doppler allows measurement of speed and direction of the blood flow within the heart.
  5. Transesophageal echocardioagraphy (TEE)
    1. Ultrasonic imaging technique used to evaluate heart structures.

    2. Diagnostic test produces clearer images than those obtained with echocardiography

    3. Performed from inside the esophagus because the esophagus is so close to the heart
  6. Angiography
    Radiographic study of the blood vessels after the injection of a contrast medium.
  7. Angiogram
    Film of an angiography - the radiographic study of blood vessels after injection with a contrast medium.
  8. Carotid ultrasonography
    1. Use of sound waves to image the carotid arteries

    2. Used to detect an obstruction that could cause an ischemic stroke.
  9. Cardiac catheterization
    • 1. Procedure to:
    • .....a. Diagnostic: Determine how well the heart is working.
    • .....b. Therapeutic (treatment): As part of treatment to clear blocked arteries.

    2. A catheter is passed into a vein or artery & then guided into the heart.

    3. When the catheter is in place, a contrast medium is introduced to produce an angiogram

    • 4. Cardiac catheterization may be used as a means to get to the heart or coronary arteries to treat a problem, as with an angioplasty which is the balloon procedure done through the catheter to unblock an artery.
  10. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
    1. Diagnostic procedure

    2. Combines angiography with computerized components.

    3. Clarifies view of the area of interest by removing the soft tissue & bones from the images.
  11. Duplex ultrasound
    1. Diagnostic procedure

    • 2. Image:
    • .....a. Structures of the blood vessels and
    • .....b. Flow of blood thru these vessels

    • 3. Combination of:
    • .....a. Diagnostic ultrasound (to show structure of blood vessels)
    • .....b. Doppler ultrasound (to show movement of red blood cells through the vessels)
  12. Ultrasound
    1. A method of visualization using ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves.)

    • 2. Can be used to visualize blood vessels.
  13. Phlebography
    1. Also known as venography

    2. Radiographic test when contrast dye is injected into a vein in the patient's foot

    3. Provides an image of leg veins.

    4. Very accurate for diagnosing deep vein thrombosis.
  14. Electrocardiography
    1. NONINVASIVE diagnostic process of recording the electrical activity of the myocardium. (ECG or EKG)

    2. Used to look for heart arrhythmias.

    • 3. The record of the procedure is an electrocardiogram.
  15. Holter monitor
    Portable electrocardiograph that is worn by an ambulatory patient to continuously monitor the heart rates and rhythms over a 24-hour period.
  16. Stress test
    1. Performed to assess cardiovascular health and function during and after stress.

    2. This involves monitoring with an electrocardiogram while the patient exercises on a treadmill.
  17. Thallium stress test
    1. Performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of the heart during exercise.
  18. Medications
    Many heart conditions are controlled with medication, however successful treatment depends on patient compliance.
  19. Compliance
    Accuracy and consistency with which the patient follows the physician's instructions.
  20. Antihypertensives
    1. A medication administered to lower blood pressure.

    2. Some of these drugs are also used to treat other heart conditions.

    • 3. This class of drugs includes:
    • .....a. ACE-inhibitor
    • .....b. Beta-blocker
    • .....c. Calcium channel blocker agents
    • .....d. Diuretic
  21. ACE inhibitor
    (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor)
    • 1. Medication used primarily to treat:
    • .....a. hypertension
    • .....b. heart failure

    2. Blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension.

    3. When this enzyme is blocked, the blood vessels are able to dilate, and this reduces the blood pressure.
  22. Beta-blocker
    1. Medication that reduces workload of the heart by slowing the rate of the heart beat.

    • 2. They are commonly prescibed to:
    • .....a. Lower blood pressure
    • .....b. Relieve angina
    • .....c. Treat heart failure
  23. Calcium channel blocker agents
    • 1.Medication that causes the heart and blood vessels to relax
    • 2. Decreases movement of calcium into the cells of these structures.

    3. This relaxation reduces the workload of the heart by increasing the supply of blood and oxygen.

    • 4. Calcium channel blocking agents used to:
    • .....a. Treat hypertension
    • .....b. Relive and control angina
  24. Diuretic
    • 1. Medication used to treat:
    • .....a. Hypertension
    • .....b. Heart failure

    2. Stimulates kidneys to increase the secretion of urine & rid body of excess sodium and water.

    3. Reduces amount of fluid circulating in the blood.
  25. Antiarrhythmic
    Medication administered to control irregularities of the heartbeat.
  26. Anticoagulant
    • Medication that:
    • .....a. Slows coagulation
    • .....b. Prevents new clots from forming

    • Examples: See Coumadin (Warfarin) & Aspirin
  27. Coagulation
    Process of clotting blood.
  28. Aspirin
    1. A very small dose of this medication, such as 81 mg baby aspirin, may be recommended.

    2. Given to reduce the risk of a heart attack or stroke by slightly reducing the ability of the blood to clot.
  29. Cholesterol-lowering drugs
    1. Medications used to combat hyperlipidemia by reducing the undesireable cholesterol levels in the blood.

    2. Example: Statins such as Lipitor or Crestor
  30. Coumadin
    1. An anticoagulant medication; a brand name for warfarin.

    2. Administered to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger.

    • 3. This medication is prescribed for patients with:
    • .....a. Clotting difficulties
    • .....b. Certain types of heartbeat irregularities
    • .....c. After a heart attack
    • .....d. After heart valve replacement surgery
    • .....e. After joint replacement surgery
  31. Digitalis
    1. Medication also known as digoxin

    • 2. Often used to treat:
    • .....a. Heart failure
    • .....b. Certain types of arrythmias

    3. Strengthens the contraction of the heart muscle

    4. Slows the heart rate

    5. Helps eliminate fluid from body tissues.
  32. Thrombolytic
    Medication that dissolves or causes a thrombus to break up.

    Example: Tissue plasinogen activator

    NOTE: This medication deals with clots that are already formed, as opposed to anticoagulants that deal with the prevention of clots.
  33. Tissue plasminogen activator
    1. Thrombocytic medication administered to some patients having a heart attack to stroke.

    2. If administered within a few hours after symptoms begin, this medication can dissolve damaging blood clots.
  34. Vasoconstrictor
    Medication causes blood vessels to narrow.

    • 2. Examples of uses of these medications include:
    • .....a. Antihistamines
    • .....b. Decongestants

    NOTE: A vasoconstrictor is the opposite of a vasodilator.
  35. Vasodilator
    Medication causes blood vessel to expand.

    Example: Nitroglycerin

    NOTES: A vasodilator is the opposite of a vasoconstrictor.
  36. Nitroglycerin
    1. A vasodilator prescribed to prevent or relieve anginal pain.

    2. Dilates blood vessels to the heart, increasing blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart.

    3. Can be taken sublingually, transdermallly, or orally as a spray.
  37. Clearing Blocked Arteries
    • Ways to clear blocked arteries:
    • .....1. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    • .....2. Angioplasty
    • .....3. Stent
    • .....4. Restenosis
    • .....5. Atherectomy
    • .....6. Carotid Endoarterectomy
  38. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    1. Known as angioplasty or balloon angioplasty or balloon catheterization

    • 2. Procedure opening a blocked or partially blocked coronary artery using a small balloon on the end of a catheter to:
    • .....a. Flatten the plaque deposit, and
    • .....b. Stretch the lumin.

    NOTE: This procedure would typically be done as a part of a cardiac catheterization procedure if blockage is noted during the initial catheterization exam.
  39. Stent
    Wire mesh tube that commonly placed after the artery has been opened.

    • This:
    • .....a. Provides support to the arterial wall
    • .....b. Keeps plaque from expanding again
    • .....c. Prevents restenosis
  40. Restenosis
    Condition when an artery that has been opened by angioplasty closes again.
  41. Atherectomy
    1. Surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery.

    2. A stent may be put in place after the atherectomy to prevent the artery from becoming blocked again.

    NOTE: Don't confuse with arteriectomy, the removal of an artery.
  42. Carotid endoarterectomy
    1. Surgical removal of the lining of a portion of a clogged carotid artery leading to the brain.

    NOTE: The artery, itself, is not removed, only th clogged lining is.

    2. This procedure is performed to reduce the risk of a stroke caused by a disruption of the blood flow to the brain.
  43. Arteriectomy
    Means surgical removal of an artery.
  44. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    1. Also known as bypass surgery or 'cabbage'

    2. This surgery requires opening of the chest.

    • 3. A piece of vein from the leg is chest is implanted on the heart to:
    • .....a. Replace a blocked coronary artery
    • .....b. Improve blood flow to the heart
  45. Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass
    1. Also known as keyhole bypass or buttonhole bypass.

    2. This is an alternative technique for some bypass patients.

    3. It is performed with the aid of a fiber optic camera through small openings between the ribs.
  46. Defibrillation
    1. Treatment for arrhythmia; also known as cardioversion.

    2. Use of electrical shock to restore heart's normal rhythm.

    3. The shock is provided by a defibrillator device.
  47. Automated external defibrillator (AED)
    1. Treatment for arrhythmia designed for use by nonprofessionals in emergency situations when defibrillation is required.

    2. This piece of equipment automatically samples the electrical rhythms of the heart and, if necessary, externally shocks the heart to restore a normal cardiac rhythm.
  48. Artifical pacemaker
    1. Treatment for arrhythmia used primarily as treatment for bradycardia or atrial fibrillation.

    2. This electronic device can be attached externally or implanted under the skin with connections leading into the heart to regulate the heartbeat.
  49. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
    1. Treatment for arrhythmia.

    • 2. Double-action pacemaker:
    • .....a. It constantly regulates the heartbeat to ensure that the heart doesn't beat too slowly
    • .....b. If a dangerous disruption of the heart's rhythm occurs, it acts as an automatic defibrillator.
  50. Valvoplasty
    1. Treatment for arrhythmia.

    2. Also known as valvuloplasty.

    3. Surgical replacement or repair of a heart valve.
  51. Cardiopulmonary resusitation
    1. Treatment for arrhythmias.

    2. Commonly known as CPR.

    • 3. An emergency procedure for life support consisting of:
    • ......a. Artifical respiration
    • .....b. Manual external cardiac compression.
  52. Aneurysmectomy
    Surgical removal of an aneurysm.
  53. Aneurysmorrhaphy
    1. Also known as an aneurysmplasty.

    2. Surgical suturing of an aneurysm
  54. Hemostatis
    1. Means to stop or control bleeding.

    2. This could be accomplished by the formation of a blood clot by the body or through the external application of pressure to block the flow of blood.
  55. Plasmapheresis
    1. Removal of whole blood from the body and separation of the blood's cellular elements.

    2. The red blood cells and platelets are suspended in saline or a plasma subsitute and returned to the circulatory system.

    3. For blood donors, this makes more frequent donations possible.

    4. Patients with certain autoimmune disorders receive their own red blood cells and platelets back cleansed of antibodies.