Spanish Grammar Rules
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Numbers 101 and higher
- Use ciento uno for counting (cien, ciento uno, ciento dos...). Use ciento un(a) when describing quantity (ciento una noches)
- Numbers 200 - 999 agree in gender with nouns they modify (trescientas vienticuatro tiendas)
-Mil can mean a thousand or one thousand. The plural form is millines, which has no accent.
- The plural forms of cientos and miles (de) refer to hundreds or thousands of (people or things)
- Years are not expressed in 2-digit pairs. (2005 = dos mil cinco)
- When millón or millones are used before a noun, place de between the two. (Un million de hombres)
Preterite tense of regular verbs
- Ar and -er verbs that have stem changes in present tense do not have stem changes in preterite. (i.e. cerrar (e:ie) --> cirri --> cerro)
- Verbs that end in -car, -gar, and -zar have a spelling change in the yo form of the preterite. All other forms are regular
(buscar = busque, llegar = llegue, empezar = empece)
- - Creer, leer, and oir have spelling changes in the preterite
- creer = (differences are creyo and creyeron)
- leer ( differences are leyo and leyeron)
- oir (differences are oyo, and oyeron)
- Seems like if there are two simultaneous vowels in conjugation a "y" separates them)
- - Ver is regular in the preterite, but none of its forms have an accent
- - Use acabar de + (infinitive) to say that something has just occurred. It stays in the present tense.
Demonstrate or point out nouns. They precede the nouns they modify and agree with them in gender and number.
- Este(a) -this (point out nouns close to speaker and listner)
- ese(a)- that ( point out nouns not close to speaker but maybe close to the listener)
- aquel/aquella that ( pointing out nouns far away from speaker and listner)
- estos(as) - these
- esos(as) - those
- aquellos/aquellas - those (over there)
- Precede the noun they modify (este vestido
identical to dem. adj. except they carry an accent mark on the stressed vowel. They agree in gender and number with the corresponding noun.
i.e. I don't like this sweater v. I prefer that one
- Neuter (esto, eso, and quello) that refer to unidentified and unspecified nouns, situations, and ideas. No change in gender, number, and never an accent mark.
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