Professional Baking Chapter 5

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Professional Baking Chapter 5
2010-04-11 10:45:30
baking culinary basic principles

Professional Baking Chapter 5 vocabulary on basic baking principles
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  1. Bran
    The hard outer covering of kernels of wheat and other grains.
  2. Caramelization
    The browning of sugars caused by heat.
  3. Coagulation
    The process by which proteins become firm, usually when heated.
  4. Crumb
    The interior of a baked item, distinct from the crust.
  5. Dough relaxation
    A period of rest in the production of yeast dough during which gluten strands become adjusted to their new length and become less tight.
  6. Gelatinization
    The process by which starch granules absorb water and swell in size.
  7. Gliadin
    A protein in wheat flour that combines with another protein, glutenin, to form gluten.
  8. Gluten
    An elastic substance, formed from proteins present in wheat flours, that gives structure and strength to baked goods.
  9. Glutenin
    A protein in wheat flour that combines with another protein, gliadin, to form gluten.
  10. Hydration
    The process of absorbing water.
  11. Maillard reaction
    A chemical reaction that causes the browning of proteins and sugars together when subjected to heat.
  12. Mature (dough)
    the ideal stage of development for a yeast dough
  13. pH
    A measure of the acidity (0 - 6.9) or alkalinity (7.1-14) of a substance.
  14. Shortening
    (1) Any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands; (2) A white, tasteless, solid fat formulated for baking or deep frying.
  15. Staling
    The change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to the loss of moisture by the starch granules.
  16. Starch retrogradation
    A chemical change of starch molecules that is responsible for staling.
  17. Water hardness
    the mineral content of water