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PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER ARCHAEOGNATHA
- ETYMOLOGY: Greek archaeos (ancient) and gnatha (jaw). Refers to the jaw (mandible) being attached to the head at a single point, the ancestral state compared to other insects where the mandible is attached at two points.
- COMMON NAME: jumping bristltails
- DISTRIBUTION: around500 described species. Worldwide, including the arctic, terrestrial under bark, in leaf litter, under rocks and rock crevices.
- MORPHOLOGY: to 25 mm long. Wingless, even as adults. Thorax arched dorsally and tip of abdomen with three tail-like projections (a central epiproct and two lateral cerci. Short, lateral styli (rudimentary appendages on abdominal segments 2-9. Have large compound eyes that meet on top of the head; also three ocelli.
- DIET: Primarily nocturnal and feed on algae, lichen, moss, and decaying vegetation.
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious, sexual, oviparous. Male deposits spermatophore that is picked up by female. These cannot stomre sperm and must get a new spermatophore before each egg laying.Some species have elaborate courtship. Young look like adults.Unlike most insects, the adults continue to molt after reaching adulthood, and typically mate once at each instar. Archaeognaths may have a total lifespan of up to four years, longer than many larger insects.These insects can jump several centimeters by snapping their abdomen against the ground.Another group name for these is Microcoryphia.
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER ZYGENTOMA
- ETYMOLOGY: Greek zyg (bridge) and entoma (insect). Refers to ??
- COMMON NAME: silverfish
- DISTRIBUTION:around400 described species, Worldwide, terrestrial. Found in leaf litter, under bark, in caves, and in ant nests. Some encountered in homes.
- MORPHOLOGY: to 15 mm long. Wingless, even as adults.Body somewhat dorsoventrally flattened and silvery gray to brown. Compound eyes small or absent; some with ocelli. The tip of abdomen with three tail-like projections (a central epiproct and two lateral cerci. Some have body covered with scales.
- DIET: Primarily nocturnal and feed on lichens and decaying plant matter. Pest species will eat book bindings and paper, wall paper, starched fabric, cereals, and flour.
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious and sexual; oviparous. Young look like adults.Some species that frequent homes (e.g., silverfish) are considered pests that can damage things such as books.usually six-legged. Unlike Archaeognatha, these can't jump.
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER EPHEMEROPTERA
- ETYMOLOGY: Greek ephemeros (short lived) and pteron (wing). Refers to short existence of the adult stage (1-2 hours for a few days).
- COMMON NAME: mayflies
- DISTRIBUTION:3100 described species, Worldwide, in and around freshwater habitats.
- MORPHOLOGY: a few mm to 35 or so mm long. Adults with large, triangular, membranous wings (hind wings often reduced) with lots of veins. Abdomen tipped with three (sometimes only two) caudal filaments. Males often with large, turbinate, compound eyes and long forelegs.Usually drab colored.
- DIET: Adults have non-functional mouthparts and do not feed. Larvae are primarily herbivorous, feeding on detritus and periphyton that they collect or scrape off the substrate or filter from the water. A few are predaceous.Many organisms eat mayflies, both as aquatic larvae (e.g., predaceous invertebrates, fish) and as aerial adults (e.g., fish, birds). A common model for dry flies.
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious and sexual; oviparous and some ovoviparous. Some can do parthenogenesis.Unique among insects in having two, winged adult stages (subimago and imago). Adult stage is for mating and egg-laying, then they die.Larvae: Aquatic in both lentic and lotic habitats.Antennae short, bristle-like.4-9 pairs of leaf-like or fan-like gills along sides of abdomen.Three (sometimes appearing as two) caudal filaments.Morphologically more diverse than adults.
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER ODONATA
- ETYMOLOGY: Greek odon (tooth). Refers to the toothed mandibles.
- COMMON NAME: damselflies (Zygoptera) and dragonflies (Anisoptera)
- DISTRIBUTION: Nearly 6000 described species, Worldwide, in and around freshwater habitats.
- MORPHOLOGY: body length around 2-15 cm long. Adults with four, elongate, similar-sized, membranous wings with many veins.Large compound eyes, short bristle-lie antennae, chewing mouthparts, forward-oriented legs, and long abdomen.
- DIET: Adults are areal predators on flying insects, larvae are predaceous on other aquatic invertebrates. Some large enough to eat small fish and tadpoles.
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious and sexual; oviparous.Interesting mating behavior. Eggs laid in and above water.Larvae: Aquatic in both lentic and lotic habitats. Unique among insects in having an elongate, hinged llabium that folds under head. This extends to grasp prey. Leaf-like gills inside abdomen in dragonflies, external and on tip of abdomen in damselflies.Adults, especially dragonflies, are masters of flight.
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER DERMAPTERA
- ETYMOLOGY: Greek derma (skin) and pteron (wing).
- COMMON NAME: earwigs
- DISTRIBUTION: 2000 described species. Worldwide; terrestrial under stones and logs, sometimes on plants. Sometimes attracted to lights at night.
- MORPHOLOGY: 4-25 25 mm long. Elongate, dorsoventrally-flattened body.Prognathous head with chewing mouthparts. Usually have compund eyes, but ocelli absent. Forewings small and leathery Hind wings are unique among insects; large, semicircular, membranous with radially oriented veins, and usually kept folded fan-like beneath the forewings. Prominent, pincer-like cerci at end of abdomen.
- DIET: Primarily nocturnal and feed on dead, dying, of sometimes living plant and animal matter.
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious, sexual, oviparous, some viviparous.Spermatophore transferred during copulation. Oviparous species are subsocial where female broods, grooms, and defends eggs and young larvae (nymphs).Some are commensals or ectoparasites of bats or rodents. The cerci are used like forceps to manipulate prey, for offense and defensive pinching, and sometimes for grasping partner during copulation. Earwigs are harmless to humans and do not crawl into people's ears and do not bite, but can pinch with cerci. Some are garden or household pests. Some are effective biocontrol agents that eat aphids, mites, armyworms, or scale insects.
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER DERMAPTERA
Family recognition (local, California)Family: AnisolabididaeBody 9-25 mm long. Second tarsal segment not extending distally beneath base of third segment.Tegmina consist of rounded flaps that don' t meat near base, or are absent. 14-24 antennal segments.Example: Euborelliaannulipes (Ring-legged Earwig).Family: ForficulidaeSecond tarsal segment extending distally beneath base of third segment.12-16 antennal segments.Example: Forficulaauricularia (European Earwig)Family: LabiduridaeBody 20-30 mm long. Second tarsal segment not extending distally beneath base of third segment.Pronotum light brown with two dark, longitudinal stripes.25-30 antennal segments.Example (only one species in North America, north of Mexico: Labidurariparia (Shore Earwig)
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER GRYLLOBLATTODEA
- ETYMOLOGY: Latingryllus (cricket) and blatta (cockroach).
- COMMON NAME: ice crawlers
- DISTRIBUTION: 26 described species, all in a single family - Grylloblattidae.Western North America and central to eastern Asia. Terrestrial ground dwellers around high elevation glaciers and snow banks above tree line (North American) or cool temperate forests under rocks and in leaf litter (Asia).
- MORPHOLOGY: 20-35 mm long. Wingless, elongate, cylindrical, relatively soft body covered with fine hairs. Chewing mouthparts, large prothorax, reduced compound eyes and no ocelli.
- DIET: Diurnal feeders on dead arthropods and other organic material.
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious and sexual; oviparous. Sperm transferred via copulation.These are being influenced by habitat loss related to global climate change.
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER MANTOPHASMATODEA
- ETYMOLOGY: Derived from a combination of Mantodea and Phasmatodea
- COMMON NAME: African rock crawlers
- DISTRIBUTION: 16 described extant species in Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. Typically found in small shrubs.
- MORPHOLOGY: 11-25 mm long. Elongate body somewhat resembling stick insect with mantid head and forelegs. Hypognathous head with chewing mouthparts and long, slender antennae. Distal tarsomere held off substrate when walking (hence one common name - heelwalkers).
- DIET: Predaceous on other insects. Grasp prey with somewhat raptorial fore legs..
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious and sexual; oviparous. Females produce eggpods where eggs are embedded in a matrix of sand and gland secretions. Copulation prolonged (up to 3 days) and male often eaten by female after mating. HemimetabolousThis order recently described (2001). First discovered in 45 million year old Baltic amber, then soon after from museum specimens from Tanzania and Namibia and then in the wild.
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER PLECOPTERA
- ETYMOLOGY: Greekplecos (plaited) and pteron (wing).
- COMMON NAME: stoneflies
- DISTRIBUTION: 2000 described species in 16 families, Worldwide, except Antarctica,, in and around freshwater habitats. Adults usually found on riparian vegetation and rocks.
- MORPHOLOGY: 4-60 mm long. Adults resemble the larvae (nymphs), but with wings. Membranous wings held dorsally along top of body, partly wrapping around sides of body and extending past the end of the abdomen. Some are apterous (without wings) or brachypterous (small, stubby wings). End of abdomen with two cerci, some lose these when become adult.
- DIET: Adults that feed eat algae, lichen, plant parts. Most probably do not eat.
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious and sexual; oviparous. Sperm transferred via copulation. Eggs released into water after landing on surface, at water's edge, or by dropping them from teh air. Some females crawl under water to lay eggs.Unique among insects in having two, winged adult stages (subimago and imago). Adult stage is for mating and egg-laying, then they die.LARVAE: Aquatic in cool lotic habitats, a few in lakes. Somewhat dorsoventrally flattened body with legs typically held out to the side. End of abdomen with two cerci. Simple or branched gills on
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER EMBIODEA
- ETYMOLOGY: Latinembios (lively)
- COMMON NAME: webspinners
- DISTRIBUTION: 300-400 described species, but perhaps 2000 or more species exist. Worldwide, terrestrial inhabitants of warm climates.
- MORPHOLOGY: 4-15 mm long. Elongate body, prognathous head with chewing mouthparts, kidney-shaped compound eyes and no ocelli. Wings are soft and flexible. All females and some males are wingless. Legs are short, the basal segment of each fore tarsus is swollen and contains silk glands. Two short cerci on end of abdomen.
- DIET: Larvae eat leaf litter, moss, bark, and lichen Adults do not eat.
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious and sexual; oviparous. Sperm transfer via copulations. Female parent tends eggs and yound larvae, which look like the adults except for being wingless and without developed genitalia.Webspinners live gregariously in sllken galleries within leaf litter, under stones, on rocks or tree trunks, among lichens, or in cracks in bark or soil.. Almost never leave their silken habitations. Galleries extended to new food sources. Readily crawl backwards in their tunnels. Stiffen wings for flying by increasing hemolymph pressure in anterior veins of wings. Mature males disperse to find mates and are sometimes eaten by females Some males are attracted to lights.
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA, CLASS INSECTA, ORDER ZORAPTERA
- ETYMOLOGY: Greekzoros (pure) anda (without) andpteron (wing).
- COMMON NAME: zorapterans
- DISTRIBUTION: 35 or so described species in a single family (Zoratypidae), Worldwide, in tropical and warm, temperate areas.
- MORPHOLOGY: < 4 mm long. Superficially resemble termites (Isoptera) or bark lice (Psocoptera). Hypognathous head with chewing mouthparts. Compound eyes and ocelli are present in winged morphs (dispersals), absent in non-winged ones. Paddle-shaped wings have reduced venation with hind wings smaller that fore wings. Wings are shed as in termites and ants. A pair of short cerci at end of abdomen. Expanded hind femore bearing stout spines. Only two tarsomeres.
- DIET: Feed on fungi and prey on small arthropods.
- REPRODUCTION: Dioecious and sexual; oviparous. Sperm transfer via copulation. Females mate repeatedly and with multiple males. Exhibit complex, species-specific courtship behavior.Zorapterans are gregarious, living in small groups (15-20 individuals) and live in leaf litter, rotting wood, of near termite colonies.
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