335 8.2 Muscles of the Velum and Pharynx

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shanamd2010
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138661
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335 8.2 Muscles of the Velum and Pharynx
Updated:
2012-02-29 09:44:32
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muscles velum pharynx
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muscles of the velum and pharynx
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  1. soft palate is part of
    the velopharyngeal port
  2. soft palate is
    valve controlling oral cavity connection to the nasal cavity
  3. how is velum active during speech
    raised on all English sounds except m, n, and ing
  4. how is the velum active during swallowing
    • lowered during oral stage
    • raised durinf reflexive stage
  5. Tensor Veli Palatini
    • o - scaphoid fossa of sphenoid; orifice (opening) to the Eustachien tube
    • c - down and around the hamulus process of sphenoid
    • ins - slightly up into the soft palate (palatal aponeurosis)
    • inn - V Trigeminal
    • f - tenses the soft palate; dilates the eustachien tube (primary function)
  6. levator veli palatini
    • makes up bulk of the soft palate
    • o - apex of the petrous portion of the temporal bone; orifice to the eustachien tube
    • c - down and forward
    • ins - upper surface of the soft palate
    • inn - pharyngeal plexus (IX mostly, X and XI)
    • f - elevates the soft palate, retracts the soft palate (toward the back wall of the throat)
  7. musculus uvula
    • o - posterior nasal spine of the palatine bones
    • c - posteriorly
    • ins - onto the mucous membrane cover of the velum
    • inn - pharyngeal plexus (IX mostly, X, XI)
    • f - shortens the soft palate
  8. palatoglossus
    • o - lower surface of the soft palate
    • c - down
    • ins - side of the tongue; forms the anterior faucial pillar (anterior faucial arch)
    • inn - pharyngeal plexus (ix mostly, X, XI)
    • f - depresses the soft palate; elevates the tongue
  9. thermal stimulation
    cooling down the palatoglossus to stimulate swallowing (but is really close to the gag reflex)
  10. palatopharyngeus
    • o - lower surface of the soft palate
    • c - laterally and down
    • ins - fibers split and course around the Levator Veli Palatini; inserts in the lateral pharyngeal walls and superior horn of the thyroid cartilage; forms the posterior faucial pillar
    • inn - pharyngeal plexus (IX mostly, X, XI)
    • f - depresses the soft palate
  11. superior constrictor
    • pharyngeal muscle
    • o - medial pterygoid plate (sphenoid); pterygomandibular raphe
    • c - posteriorly
    • ins - median pharyngeal raphe
    • inn - pharyngeal plexus (mostly IX and X, some XI)
    • f - constricts the upper pharynx; pulls it forward
  12. pharyngeal muscles
    move forward to meet he velum to seal off the nasal cavity
  13. middle constrictor
    • pharyngeal muscle
    • o - greater cornu (horn) of the hyoid; lesser cornu of the hyoid; stylohyoid ligament (from the stylo process of temporalbone to the hyoid bone)
    • c - up and back
    • ins - median pharyngeal raphe
    • inn - pharyngeal plexus (mostly IX and X, some XI)
    • f - constricts the middle pharynx; narrows the diameter; (helps to move food down the throat)
  14. inferior constrictor
    • pharyngeal muscle
    • o - lamina and superior horn of the thyroid cartilag; cricoid cartilage
    • c - back
    • ins - upper portion - median pharyngeal raphe
    • lower portion - esophagus
    • inn - pharyngeal plexus (mostly IX and X, some XI)
    • f - constricts the lower pharynx
  15. lower portion of inferior constrictor forms
    the cricopharyngeus muscle or EUS (upper esophageal sphincter) - opening to the esophagus
  16. visible movements upon phonation
    • vertical - velum rises
    • anterior - back wall of pharynx moves forward (superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles
    • medial - faucial arches move inward

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