Aural Rehab

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Author:
amykath
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138662
Filename:
Aural Rehab
Updated:
2012-03-06 21:43:15
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Aural Rehabilitation SLP
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Aural Rehabilitation, SLP
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  1. The efficacy benefits of Auditory Training are ____.
    hard to assess
  2. Auditory Training has factors that ____.
    can confound the studies
  3. Adults receiving auditory training tend to ____.
    improve
  4. Auditory training does not seem to have _____.
    a lasting effect
  5. We don't know how auditory training works on ____.
    children
  6. An expensive and a cheap version of auditory training probably have similar ____.
    efficacies
  7. Speech reading is defined as speech recognition using ____.
    both auditory and visual cues
  8. Lip reading is the process of recognizing speech using _____.
    only the visual speech signal and other visual cues, such as facial expression
  9. fMRIs confirm that visual information is used routinely by the brain for _____.
    speech recognition
  10. When presented with visual information only, the ____ becomes activated.
    auditory cortex
  11. Persons with hearing impairment rely more on ____ than persons with normal hearing.
    visual cues
  12. Persons with hearing impairment develop more acute vision. T/F?
    False
  13. On average, who does better with speech reading?
    women
  14. List some cues for speech reading:
    • facial expression
    • lip reading
    • grammatical and semantic context
    • residual hearing of speech reader
  15. The process of speech reading includes:
    • listening with/without amplification
    • recognition of gestural cues
    • awareness of environmental cues
    • vision training
  16. People watching tv with the sound all the way down with their hearing aids on vs. people with their hearing aids off, process speech ____ even though there is no auditory signal.
    better
  17. Lipreading is the process by which a person uses the _____ of the speaker's lips as cues.
    position and movement
  18. Most humans recognize less than ___% of the words they see (lipreading).
    20
  19. What are the five factors that affect lipreading?
    • Visibility of sounds
    • Rapidity of speech
    • Coarticulation and stress
    • Visemes and homophenes
    • Talker effects
  20. ___% of sounds are not visible on the mouth.
    60
  21. Lip reading: Rapidity of Speech
    conversational speech uses _____ wpm.
    150-250
  22. Lip reading: Rapidity of Speech
    typical talkers use ___ phonemes/second
    15
  23. Lip reading: Rapidity of Speech
    The human eye can only process ____ discrete mouth movements/second
    9-10
  24. Lip reading: Coarticulation and stress
    Results in the same sound looking ____ in different _____.
    • different
    • contexts
  25. Lip reading: Coarticulation and stress
    A word will look different depending on its ____.
    stress
  26. Lip reading: Visemes and homophenes
    Visemes are ____.
    groups of sounds that look the same on the lips (b,p,m)
  27. Lip reading: Visemes and homophenes
    There are ____ visemes than homophenes.
    fewer
  28. Lip reading: Visemes and homophenes
    Homophenes are _____.
    words that look the same on the mouth
  29. The Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM) says ____.
    Other lexical candidates come forward when one word is heard. Overlapping sets. Ex: Dog, puppy... or neighboring sounds - words that are the same except for one sound - can, ban...
  30. Factors that affect the speechreading process
    • Speaker
    • Message
    • Environment
    • Speechreader
  31. Look at Neighborhood Association Model in book!
    Do it!
  32. DB(A) and DB(C) are two measures for ____.
    noise
  33. DB(A) measures on a sound level meter closely follow ____.
    the normal sound pressure level (SPL) sensitivity curve of the human ear.
  34. When the potential hazards of noise upon hearing thresholds are discussed, it is the ____ measurements that are usually invoked.
    dB(A)
  35. The normal ear is less sensitive to ____ than to ____ frequencies.
    • very low frequency sounds
    • higher
  36. The SLM network that responds equally to all sound frequencies regardless of their relationship to normal human ear sensitivity is the ____.
    dB(C) network
  37. When the same noise is measuredwith dB(A) and dB(C), the amount of ____ sounds determine the different readings.
    low frequency
  38. In the presence of low frequency sounds, ___ will exceed ___.
    • dB(C)
    • dB(A)
  39. The difference between dB(A) and dB(C) is an approximate estimate of the intensity of the_____.When both readings are about the same, this indicates that the predominant energy in the noise is located above about ___ Hz.
    • low frequencies
    • 600
  40. FM (Frequency Modulation) systems utilize ____ to transmit sound from the source to the user.
    radio waves
  41. ___ wireless systems are commonly used in classroom settings.
    FM
  42. When using a ____, the speaker wears a microphone that transmits to a receiver worn by the hearing impaired individual.
    personal FM trainer
  43. Personal FM trainers may be connected to the child's hearing aid by a(n) ____ or a(n) ____.
    • direct audio input or interface (hardwire connection from the receiver to the hearing aid)
    • FM boot (FM receiver attached directly to the hearing aid)
  44. Some FM systems utilize a neckloop that transmits to the hearing aid via ___.
    the hearing aid's telecoil
  45. SNR in FM systems is considered ___.
    excellent
  46. With what wireless system can you have multiple receivers on the same transmission frequency?
    FM systems
  47. ____ are similar to ____, but sound is transmitted to loudspeakers placed throughout the classroom.
    • Soundfield FM systems
    • personal FM systems
  48. SNR is not as good with ___ as with personal FM systems.
    soundfield FM system
  49. What are the four categories of wireless systems?
    • FM system
    • Infrared system
    • Induction loop
    • Simple amplification
  50. Infrared systems use ___ to transmit sound.
    infrared light
  51. The wireless receiver of an infrared system contains ____.
    a photo diode
  52. A photo detector diode does what?
    Picks up the infrared signal and converts it back to the audio signal
  53. Users of infrared wireless systems either wear the infrared receiver or receives the signal through ___ or through ____.
    • DAI
    • the HA telecoil switch
  54. Common uses for infrared systems are:
    • TV
    • Movie theaters
  55. Infrared cannot be used ___ and cannot ____.
    • outside
    • travel through walls
  56. ____ is a system that works by running a wire around the circumference of a table or room that conducts electrical energy from an amplifier and thus creates an electromagnetic field.
    An induction loop system
  57. What is an induction loop system?
    A system that works by running a wire around the circumference of a table or room that conducts electrical energy from an amplifier and thus creates an electromagnetic field.
  58. Induction loop systems are commonly used:
    • in religious settings
    • classrooms
    • theaters
  59. Induction loop systems can be ___, ____ or ____.
    • permanent
    • portable
    • personal
  60. ____ systems amplify the audio signal so that it is more audible to the person with hearing loss.
    Simple amplification
  61. What is a simple amplification system?
    systems that amplify the audio signal so that it is more audible to the person with hearing loss.
  62. What is an example of a simple amplification system?
    telephone
  63. What are some uses of hard-wired systems? What is an advantage and disadvantage?
    • TV, radio, music
    • Adv: Favorable SNR
    • Disadv: tethered to sound source
  64. What is the general anatomy of a classroom amp system?
    • Input device
    • Transmission device
    • Receiving device
    • Possibly an amplifier
    • Coupling device
  65. Echoes caused by sound rebounding off surfaces such as walls, floors and ceilings are called ____.
    reverberation
  66. Define reverberation.
    Echoes caused by sound rebounding off surfaces such as walls, floors and ceilings.
  67. Reverberation is made worse by ____ and is reduced by ____.
    • high ceilings, hardwood floors, plaster
    • carpeted floors, heavy draperies
  68. ____ is undesirable noise that masks the auditory signal of interest.
    Background noise
  69. Define background noise.
    Undesirable noise that masks the auditory signal of interest.
  70. Noise is measured using ____.
    a sound level meter (SLM)
  71. What is SNR?
    signal to noise ratio - a comparison of signal level to noise level
  72. If ____ exceeds ____ the SNR is a positive number.
    • signal level
    • noise level
  73. If ____ is less than ____ the SNR is a negative number.
    • signal level
    • noise level
  74. What is sound propagation?
    As sound leaves its source, it travels in ever exapanding spherical waves that strike all surfaces and fill the room.
  75. What is direct sound?
    That portion of the initial sound that occurs before the sound strikes any surface.
  76. What is reflected sound?
    After striking a surface, direct sound becomes reflected sound.
  77. What is reverberation?
    A continued series of sound reflections in a room after the sound source has quit producing sound waves
  78. ____ depends upon the nature of the surface and the amount of sound treatment.
    Absorption
  79. ____ sound energy builds up and is distributed fairly equally throughout a room.
    Reflected
  80. What is the precedence effect?
    The ability to focus on the direct sound waves and suppress later reflections of the same sound waves arriving from different sources in the room.
  81. ____ depends upon the relative time arrival and the spectral content of the speech signal as it arrives to two ears.
    Precedence
  82. Persons with normal hearing can integrate reflected sounds arriving within ____ into their perception
    20-30 msec
  83. Persons with hearing impairment do not have the _____ because _____.
    • precedence ability
    • all reflected sounds are perceived as direct sound
  84. What is critical distance?
    The point where the energy level of direct and reverberant sound is equal.
  85. The more reverberant the room, the shorter the _____.
    critical distance
  86. The more reverberant the room, the higher _____.
    the reverberant sound energy
  87. The room acoustics can severely affect the original signal, especially as ___ and ___ increases.
    • reverberation time
    • distance
  88. For optimal speech reception, the listener should be within ___.
    critical distance
  89. What is reverberation time?
    The time it takes for the intensity level of the original signal to decrease by 60 dB after the cessation of the sound source.
  90. Reverberation time is the time it takes for the intensity level of the original signal to ____ after the cessation of the sound source.
    decrease by 60 dB
  91. The shorter the ___, the more suitable the room is for speech reception.
    reverberation time
  92. ___ and ____ are reciprocal qualities.
    • Reflection
    • absorption
  93. The more absorption that occurs, the fewer ____.
    reflections
  94. The less absorption that occurs, the greater the ____.
    reflections
  95. Reverberation time differs ____.
    across frequencies
  96. How do you calculate reverberation time?
    by averaging the reverb time of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz
  97. Normally hearing persons can tolerate reverberation times of up to ____ before degradation of speech occurs. Hearing impaired persons' speech perception begins to suffer within ___.
    • 1.2 seconds
    • .3 or .4 seconds
  98. What are the goals of auditory training?
    • To develop ability to recognize speech using auditory signals
    • To develop ability to interpret auditory experiences
  99. In auditory training the use of ____.
    RESIDUAL HEARING is MAXIMIZED
  100. What are the principles of auditory training?
    • Auditory Skill Level
    • Stimulus units
    • Activity type
    • Difficulty level
  101. What are the factors used when determining auditory skill level?
    • Sound Awareness
    • Sound discrimination
    • Identification
    • Comprehension
  102. What is a stimulus unit in auditory training?
    • Analytic-Phonetic breaks down speech into component sounds, to learn to make finer and finer distinctions between phonemes, auditory-only
    • Synthetic uses complete sentences, paragraphs even. Emphasizes the understanding of meaning not necessarily each word.
  103. Formal activity type in auditory training presents ____.
    They are often ___.
    They usually involve ___ and ___.
    • highly structured activities
    • one on one at the same time of the day, same place, etc.
    • DRILL and reinforcements
  104. Informal activity type in auditory training usually occurs ____ and is incorporated ____.
    • during the daily routine
    • into other activities (such as a conversation or other class)
  105. What are the difficulty level variations in auditory training?
    • Stimulus/response set
    • Stimulus Unit
    • Stimulus Similarity
    • Contextual Support
    • Task Structure
    • Listening conditions
  106. During auditory training if the correct response rate is at___, increase the level of difficulty. If the correct response rate is consistently ___, lower the level of difficulty.
    • 80%
    • 50%
  107. What is a goal?
    • the result toward which training is directed
    • the desired aim or outcome
  108. What are objectives?
    • Steps toward reaching the goal
    • Physically measurable result
    • expected within a particular time period or after a particular lesson
  109. Accomplishing ___ leads to meeting the goal.
    objectives
  110. Body aids are optimal for ____.
    All degrees of hearing loss, but usually used for sever and profound losses
  111. BTE
    Hearing loss for which use is optimal?
    Hearing loss for which use is appropriate but not optimal?
    Physical factors that may preclude or limit use?
    • All degrees
    • N/A
    • Deformed outer ears
  112. ITE
    Hearing loss for which use is optimal?
    Hearing loss for which use is appropriate but not optimal?
    Physical factors that may preclude or limit use?
    • Mild through severe
    • Severe to profound, not recommended for profound
    • Shallow depression at entry of ear canal
  113. ITC
    Hearing loss for which use is optimal?
    Hearing loss for which use is appropriate but not optimal?
    Physical factors that may preclude or limit use?
    • Mild to moderate-to-severe
    • moderate-to-severe, not recommended for profound
    • narrow or malformed ear canals; history of wax buildup; reduced manual dexterity
  114. CIC
    Hearing loss for which use is optimal?
    Hearing loss for which use is appropriate but not optimal?
    Physical factors that may preclude or limit use?
    • Mild
    • Moderate, not recommended for severe or profound
    • narrow or malformed ear canals; reduced manual dexterity
  115. Middle ear implant
    Hearing loss for which use is optimal?
    Hearing loss for which use is appropriate but not optimal?
    Physical factors that may preclude or limit use?
    • Mild through severe
    • Profound
    • N/A
  116. Label the degrees of hearing loss.
    • Mild: 26-40 dB HL
    • Mild-to-moderate: 41-55 dB HL
    • Moderate: 56-70 dB HL
    • Severe: 71-90 dB HL
    • Profound: 90 dB HL or greater
  117. The four skill levels underlying most auditory training programs are:
    • sound awareness
    • sound discrimination
    • identification
    • comprehension

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