Hist 3611 midterm
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William "Blinker" Hall
British Director of Naval Intelligence from 1914 to 1919; responsible for intercepting and decoding the Zimmerman telegram sent from Germany to Mexico, in an effort to get the US to enter the war on the British side
WWI. Decryption unit of the British Navy that decoded German messages, most importantly the Zimmerman Telegram
an enciphering rotor machine used by Nazi Germany prior to and during WWII; Germans thought Enigma was unbreakable, and used it in all branches of their military (army, navy, and air force); the intelligence traffic intercepted from the Enigma machine was referred to as “ULTRA” by the Allies; Enigma is a portable machine, looks kind of like a typewriter
1946-47, Central Intelligence Group, established under the National Intelligence Authority in 1946 to plan and coordinate foreign intelligence activities. Was abolished by National Security Act, which created the CIA in 1947
Special operatives teams in the European Theater, focusing on sabotage and guerilla warfare behind German lines. They would comprise of a British (SOE team), American (OSS team), or sometimes French officer, and a team of British/American saboteurs or members of the French Resistance. They would be parachuted behind enemy lines to complete their objectives; famed example is Virginia Hall. First real joint efforts between the OSS and SOE.
1946, First Director of Central Intelligence in the CIG, which became the CIA. Appointed by Truman in January, he was relieved of duty in July
Office of Strategic Services, based primarily in Europe, the Middle East, and Indochina (although officers in the Pacific front were not very fond of their presence or actions). Headed by William Donovan, it originally comprised of his contacts in high positions up and down the East Coast, earning it the nickname “the Oh So Social Club”. Wartime predecessor to the CIG, which would later become the CIA. However, due to hostility from other intelligence organizations, was denied access to SIGINT.
"On the Roof Gang"
- Started in 1929, the ONI’s group of radio operators taught
- to intercept Japanese traffic. Taught on the top floor of the Navy department in Washington DC.
The British crypto-analysis used for decoding the messages sent from Germany’s ENIGMA machine. Ultimately, “Ultra” became the standard designation for all information among the Allied forces (in the European Theater; “Magic” was the information from the Pacific Theater).
British headquarters of information decryption; was the station that both broke Enigma and produced Ultra.
Constructed a machine called ENIGMA to encipher business traffic in 1918; Germans later adopt this in the 1920s and use it during WWII, thinking it undecipherable.
Emphasizes that we cannot break the ENIGMA through pencil and paper, had to use a machine to break a machine. Thus leads to the introduction of the “bombe machine”, which found the settings for the Enigma machine; but because the British can’t build enough of the bombes to keep up with the traffic, they turned to America for help. Turing eventually goes over to Dayton, Ohio to help coordinate efforts.
The enciphering machine used by the US Army (the Navy’s was different and was called the Electronic Cipher Machine). Was a generation ahead of the technology used by Germany, Japan, and Great Britain, and throughout the entire war was never broken.
In 1939, while working at Bletchley Park, this leading British Scientist determined that the Oslo Report which reported on German advances in technology, research in bacterial and chemical weapons, helicopter and jet fighter plans, and flying bombs (cruise missiles), is genuine. He compared Germany to allied development – British spitfire, US B-29, Mustang, and P-38 fighter jets were superior. He warns the British that Germans are close to developing all of these very modern weapons.
OSS officer and a member of OSS X-2 (elite group in OSS that dealt with Ultra), Papurt made a date with Life magazine photographer Margaret Bourke White (although he was married). At the last moment, he receives key Ultra information, puts it in his coat pocket before his date, during which he and Margaret came under fire by Germans and are taken into custody. Interrogate Papurt for the rest of the war. Papurt said he knew nothing about where Ultra came from or what it involved, and Germans believed him. Germans changed Enigma settings, but only for one month. The next month, it was changed back and the Allies could again read Ultra traffic.
WWII. 1944 “first US army group” was a fake army, intended to deceive Germans on where the allied second front would be coming. The Germans knew General George S Patton as the most widely known US General, and assumed that he would be leading the troops into France. The Allies knew this, and sent Patton, in charge of the take FUSAG from Dover, England to Pas de Calais, France. The deception worked very well and kept many German forces away from Normandy.
Double Cross System, WWII Humint deception in Britain. British MI5 turned every German agent (Abwehr and SD agents) in Britain to be a double agent to provide disinformation to Germans. Double Committee of MI6 turned German agents into double agents for allies. Radio double agents – agent transmitted messages containing disinformation to Germany. Helps in the success of the allied invasion at Normandy (D-Day)
WWII. Japanese code for Midway. Rochefort and On the Roof Gang insisited on its validity, Nimitz admiral of Navy believes them and knows that they're coming, turning the whole war around
British MI6 agent during WW II, but was actually an undercover Soviet spy who served as a KGB operative; a member of the Cambridge Five spy ring; passed information about Britain and the US to the Soviet Union during World War II and into the early 1950s
- Joseph: Director of Naval Communications; John: Head of OP-20-G; during the Battle of Midway, the Redman brothers, located in DC, failed to believe Rochefort's (a naval officer and cryptologist) reports on what the next
- Japanese target would be. Rochefort said the target 'AF' referred to in Japanese intercepts was talking about Midway and that the date of the attack would be late May or early June, but John Redman maintained that no attack would happen before mid-June. Admiral Nimitz believed Rochefort, who turned out to be right, allowing the Allies to win the Battle of Midway, which was the turning point of the war in the Pacific.
a British WWII covert military organization formed by Churchill and Dalton; created "to conduct guerrilla warfare against the Axis powers and to instruct and aid local resistance movements. On its formation, it was ordered by Churchill to "set Europe ablaze".Its mission was to encourage and facilitate espionage, sabotage and reconnaissance behind enemy lines." –wiki; one of two organizations that ran HUMINT operations during WW2 (the other being MI 6)
- Enemy Objectives Unit. The American counterpart of SOE, formed by Roosevelt; part of the OSS research and analysis division; "The Enemy Objectives Unit was a research group of economists that used input/output models in ecommending Nazi targets to allied Eighth Air Force." – wiki; Important b/c it attempted to determine what sort of impact bombing will have on the war in Germany, and how to coordinate these bombing raids; Determined there were several choke points of the German war effort if you hit their fighter jet production lines, you could negate their air superiority if you hit the bridges, they couldn't move troops if you hit their oil facilities, they couldn't fuel their machines
- EOU began to focus on hitting these oil reserves, and this begins to take a toll on the German war effort
Civil War. Lowe was an American scientist and businessman who pioneered the use of hot air balloons for reconnaissance in the American Civil War. Originally, General Winfield Scott did not want to use any balloons, so Lowe went over his head to the Secretary of War and procured a purchase order from him. The balloons were cumbersome and hard to move, but effective at first for observing enemy artillery positions and the layout of their camps. Eventually, the Confederate army was able to outsmart balloon observers by using “Quaker Guns”- stripped logs arranged to look like cannon and deceive the Union forces. Lowe’s experience is also a good example of how politics and intelligence intersect: the generals who used balloons belonged to one political party, and so members of the other party did not want to be associated with their military failures, so they refused to employ balloons.
National Security Act
1947 Truman. No repeat of Pearl Harbor. Created Joint Chiefs of Staff, CIA provided daily summaries, but fundamentally didn't change anything because no intel coordination.
Operation SUNRISE was a 1945 attempt by OSS officers in Switzerland in 1945 to negotiate a separate peace in Italy with the German army headed by SS General Karl Wolff. General Wolff hoped to gain a good life for himself after the German surrender he knew was coming. SUNRISE caused friction between the US and Britain on one hand and the USSR on the other, because the Soviets were not allowed to participate in SUNRISE negotiations.
Civil War. The Trent Affair occurred when, in 1861, Union Navy sailors on board the USS San Jacinto boarded the British steamer RMS Trent. They arrested James Mason and John Slidell on board because of intelligence that the two men were going to London as spies. The US Navy took them to Boston; the British were incensed at the boarding of a British ship by US sailors, and mobilized 10,000 troops in Canada. Lincoln released the two Southern men, both former U.S. Senators, and apologized. Mason and Slidell went on to London to spy, and successfully paid and built warships for the Confederate navy in British shipyards
X-2 was the counterintelligence arm of the OSS. It also liaised with the British on the immensely significant ULTRA project in World War Two. Its membership was recruited almost exclusively by William Donovan directly from his own personal contacts, leading to some concerns about operational security (many sympathized with the Soviets). James Jesus Angleton was an X-2 officer who became very powerful in Italy after completing many successful operations.
The chief physician and surgeon in the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War, and a spy for the British. He secretly transmitted information on American maneuvers to the British General Gage. All the top American commanders, including George Washington, trusted Church a great deal. At the time of his conviction, the Continental Congress had not made any laws against espionage, so he was deported to Britain.
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