AP World- Ch. 23 Vocab

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AP World- Ch. 23 Vocab
2012-02-29 17:59:29
AP World Vocab

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  1. Industrial Revolution
    Series of changes in economy of Western Europe between 1740 and 20th century; stimulated by rapid population growth, increase in agricultural productivity, commercial revolution of 17th century, and development of new means of transportation; in essence involved technological change and the application of machines to the process of production.
  2. American Revolution
    Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of United States of America
  3. French Revolution
    Revolution in France between 1789 and 1800; resulted in overthrow of Bourbon monarchy and old regimes; ended with establishment of French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe
  4. Louis XVI
    Bourbon monarch of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution (1792)
  5. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    Adopted during the liberal phase of the French Revolution (1789); stated the fundamental equality of all French citizens; later became a political source for other liberal movements
  6. Guillotine
    Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror
  7. Napoleon Bonaparte
    Rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general; led a coup that ended the French Revolution and established the French Empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815
  8. Congress of Vienna
    Meeting in the aftermath of Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes
  9. Conservatives
    promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions and supports, at the most, minimal and gradual change in society
  10. Liberals
    Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments
  11. Reform Bill of 1832
    Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain
  12. Chartist Movement
    Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands for reform beyond the Reform Act of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed
  13. Louis Pasteur
    Discoverer of germs; discovery led to more conscientious sanitary regulation by the 1880s
  14. Benjamin Disraeli
    Leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics
  15. Count Camillo di Cavour
    Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmontese king
  16. Otto von Bismarck
    Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in 1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes
  17. American Civil War
  18. Socialism
    Political movement with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man
  19. Karl Marx
    German socialist of the mid-19th century; blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship
  20. Feminist movement
    Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s
  21. Charles Darwin
    Biologist who developed theory of evolution of species (1859); argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival
  22. Albert Einstein
    Developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; after 1900 issued theory of relativity
  23. Sigmund Freud
    Viennese physician (19th-20th centuries); developed theories of the workings of the human unconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses
  24. Romanticism
    Artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection