bio22.txt

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itzlinds
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138751
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bio22.txt
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2014-04-01 17:37:38
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respiratory system
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respiratory system
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  1. list the fxn of the respiratory system:
    • provides oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between blood and air
    • serves for speech and vocalization
    • sense of smell
    • pH regulation (via CO2)
    • aids in angiotensin II synthesis (blood pressure)
    • Assists CV system - respiratory pumps (venous/lymph return)
    • dissolves blood clots
  2. List the structures that are included in the upper respiratory tract:
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • larynx
  3. list the structures of the lower respiratory tract:
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • alveoli
  4. describe the structure and fxn of the nose:
    • fxn: warms, cleanses, and humidifies inhaled air, detects odors, serves as a resonating chamber that amplifies the voice, guard hairs/mucous traps tiny particles
    • the nasal concha: creates turbulent air flow
  5. describe the structure and fxn of the nasal septum
    • perpendicular plate (ethmoid bone)
    • septal cartilage
    • vomer
  6. describe the structure and fxn of the pharynx:
    • nasopharynx: receives air only
    • oropharynx: passes air, food and drink
    • laryngopharynx: passes air, food, and drink

    the respiratroy and digestive system share the oropharynx and laryngopharynx
  7. describe the structure and fxn of the larynx:
    • voice box, keeps food and drink of out of the airway
    • epiglottis: closes the airway and directs food and drink into the esophagus
    • thyroid cartilage: shieldlike, adam's apple
    • cricoid cartilage: ringlike, connects layrnx to trachea
    • hyoid bone
    • vestibular folds: no role in speech, close larynx during swallowing
    • vocal cords: produces sounds as air passes between them
    • glottis: the vocal cords and the opening between them
  8. describe the effects of testosterone on the vocal cords:
    • produce longer/thicker vocal cords
    • vibrate slower and lower pitch
    • taut cords: produce higher pitch
    • looser cords: produce low pitch

    speech is produced by pharynx, tounge, mouth and lips
  9. describe the structure and fxn of the trachea:
    • windpipe
    • 16-20 C shaped rings, reinforce the trachea and keep it from collapsing when you inhale
    • mucocililary escalator: debris removal, mucus traps particles, upward beating of cilia drives debris laden mucus toward pharynx, then swallowed, 10-20 beats/second

    *smoking/pollution kills cillia
  10. describe the structure and fxn of the lungs:
    • apex
    • mediastinal surface: faces medially
    • hilum: how the lung receives the main bronchus, blood vessels, and nerves
    • main bronchi: 1st degree
    • superior lobar, middle lobar, inferior lobe bronchus: 2nd degree
    • asymmetrical: R lung shorter, liver interfers so 3 lobes, L lung, heart interferes so 2 lobes
  11. desribe the bronchial tree and its relation to the airways:
    conducting zone: air flow only - nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, main bronchus, lobar bronchus, segmental bronchus, bronchiole, smooth muscle and cartilage

    *

    • cillary elevator stops in between
    • *
    • reapiratory zone: gas exchange, no cartilage, includes, terminal broonchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveloar ducts (8 x 108)
  12. describe the structure and fxn of the alveloi anatonmy:
    • low blood pressure
    • ensures only absorption of fluid, not filtiraion, so no pulmonary edema
    • capillary networks around alveoli
  13. list the alveloi cells and their fxns:
    • Squamous (type I) alveolar cell: covers about 95% of alveolar surface area, thin, layer provides rapid gas exchange
    • great (type II) avleolar cell: 5% of surface, repair squamous (type I) cells when damaged, secrete surfactant
    • alveolar macrophages: most abundant, phagocytize dust, debris, bacteria,
  14. describe the structure and fxn of the pleurea:
    • fxn: reduces friction, when breathing, creates a negative pressure that keeps the lungs inflated, cmpartmentalization of each lung
    • intrapuleural fluid: only a few mL
    • parietal pleura: attached to the throacic wall, mediastinmum, inner surface of rib cage, superior diaphragm
    • visceral plurea: covers the surface of the lung, serous membrane
  15. Contraction of which muscles are required for normal/quiet inspiration?

    pectoralis major and pectoralis minor
    sternocleidomastoid and erector spinae
    diaphragm and intercostal muscles
    rectus abdominis and external abdominal obliques
    diaphragm and intercostal muscles
  16. The fact that pressure decreases when volume increases is the principle behind what law?


    Charles' Law
    Henry's Law
    Dalton's Law
    Boyle's Law
    Breuer's Law
    L.A. Law
    boyles law
  17. ____________is the temporary cessation of breathing.

    eupnea
    hyperpnea
    apnea
    dyspnea
    hypopnea
    apnea
  18. During inspiration, air flows into the lungs because:

    the temperature inside the lungs is less than the atmospheric temperature.
    the volume of the lungs is decreased by muscle contraction.
    the pressure inside the lungs is less than the atmospheric pressure.
    the bronchioles are dilated by an increase in PSNS activity.
    none of the above; inspiration is a passive process.
    the pressure inside the lungs is less than the atmosphereic pressure
  19. The stretchability or ease with which the lungs can expand is called _____________.

    pleural flexibility
    pulmonary elasticity
    bronchoflexibility
    pulmonary compliance
    inflationary capacity
    pulmonary compliance
  20. Which of the following will increase the efficiency of oxygen exchange in the alveoli?

    decreasing the partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere
    increasing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    emphysema
    dilating the pulmonary arteries near well-ventilated alveoli
    increasing the thickness of the respiratory membran
    dilaing the pumonary arteries near well-ventilated alveoli
  21. Most of the oxygen in the blood is __________; and most carbon dioxide is transported as _______.

    bound to hemoglobin; bicarbonate
    dissolved gas; water
    dissolved gas; dissolved gas
    bound to hemoglobin; water
    bound to hemoglobin; bound to hemoglobin
    bound to hemoglobine; bicarbonate
  22. The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is ________; whereas the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood is ________.

    95 mmHg; 46 mmHg
    116 mmHg; 32 mmHg
    160 mmHg; 0.3 mmHg
    40 mmHg; 32 mmHg
    46 mmHg; 40 mmHg
    95 mmHg; 46 mmHg
  23. When carbon dioxide levels in the blood rise, this causes _________, so the body __________ to correct the problem.

    acidosis; hypoventilates
    acidosis; hyperventilates
    alkalosis; hyperventilates
    alkalosis; hypoventilates
    nothing bad to happen; does nothing
    acidosis; hyperventilates
  24. When the temperature in the tissues rises, more oxygen will dissociate from hemoglobin. (0.25pts)



    True
    False
    true
  25. describe pulmonary ventilation:
    • breathing
    • respiratory cycle
  26. describe the respiratory msucles involved in quiet inspiration:
    • refers to relaxed, unconscious, automatic breathing
    • external intercoastals ( elevates ribs 2-12)
    • diaphragm (descends: impacts 2/3 airflow)
  27. escribe the respiratory msucles involved in forced inspiration:
    • refers to deep, rapid breathing, as in excerise, singing, plays instruments, coughing, sneezing
    • sternoclediomastoid (elevates sternum)
    • scalenes ( elevates ribs 1 - 2)
    • pectoralis minor (elevates ribs 3-5)
    • external intercoastals
    • diaphragm
  28. describe the respiratory muscles involved in quite expiration:
    • passive, elastic recoil of lungs
    • no muscles
  29. describe the respiratory muscles involved in forced expiration:
    • internal intercoastals (depress ribs)
    • diaphragm (acends)
    • abdominals ( compress abdominal cavity, push diaphragm upwards)
  30. explain the mechanisms of the nerual control of breathign and the factors that modulate respiratory rhythm:
    • pontine respiratory group (PRG): modulators of respiratory rhythm, receives input from hypothalamus, limbic system, cerebral cortex, adapts breathing to sleep, excerise, speech, emotions, under voluntary control
    • dorsal respiratory group (DRG): intergrator, inputs from PRG, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, chemorecptors ( CO2/pH), stretch and irriant receptors, outputs to the VRG
    • ventral respiratory group (VRG): primary involunatary generatory in meduall oblongata, output to muscles, inspriatory neurons 2 sec., expiratory neurons 3 sec. = 12 breaths/min., pattern generator to spinal cord/muscles of respiration
  31. explain the mechanism of Boyle's law and how it applies to the pricniples governeing respiratory airflow:
    Boyles law: the pressure of a given quantithy of gas is inversly proportional to its volume. If the lungs contain a quantity of gas and lung volume increases, their internal pressure (intrapulmonary pressure) falls.

    • inspiration: P alveoli (low ) < P atm (high)
    • expiration: P alveoli (high) > P atm (low)
    • Airflow: high P to low P
    • no flow: P atm = P alveoli

    How does P change? volume
  32. explain the mechanism of events and pressure changes that occur throughout the respiratory cycle:
    • at rest: pressure relavitve to atmospheric pressure; chest wants to expand outward, lung elasticity wants to recoil inward; no flow- P atm = P alveoli; pleura stuck together by intrapleural (IP) fluid; negative IP pressure (slight vaccum) - IP pressure = -4mmHg, holds lungs open
    • inspiration: muscles contract; increases the volume in the throacic cavity - increase lung volume; increase lung volume - decrease pressure, so air flows in: P atm > P alveoli (0> - 3), until P atm = P alveoli
    • expiration: muscles relax; decrease volume in throacic cavity - decrease lung volume, air flows out; P alveoli > P atm (3 > 0) until P alveoli = P atm
    • pnemothroax: air in chest; P (IP) goes from -4 to 0, since nothing holds lungs open , then inwards recoil and collapse, atelectasis- collapsed lung or partial breath
  33. describe how airway radius affects resistance to airflow:
    • bronchodilation: an increase in the diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole, an increase in radius leads to a decrease in resistance; epinephrine and the SNS stimulate bronchodilation and increase airflow
    • bronchoconstriction: a reduction in diameter; decrease in radius leads to an increase in resistance; internal stimulants - PSNS, ACh, histamines, interleukins, external stimulants - cold air, chemical irritants, asthema

    asthema/inflammation- bronchonconstriction, treatment is bronchodilation/anti-inflammatory drugs
  34. describe how pulmonary compliance affects resistance to airflow:
    • pulmonary compliance: the ease with with the lungs expand or stretchability; expansion based on pressure changes - change in lung volume relative to a given pressure change
    • increased compliance: floppy lungs, easy to inhale, hard to exhale; emphysema; "spent" ballon
    • decreased compliance: stiff lungs; shallow breathing, expand less; TB, black lung disease; throacic expands normally, but lungs expand little
  35. describe how surface tension affects resistance to airflow:
    • alveoli have a slight moisture lining
    • H-bonds attract water molecules to each other, creating surface tension, which leads to increase collapse
    • fix: surfactant ; "detergent like";contains amphiphilic proteins and phospholipids - partially hydrophobic, so spread out over the surface of the water film *** reduces surface tension***; increased by type II cells
    • Newborn respriatory diestress syndrom: no surfactant; decrease compliance; increased work breathing - alveloar collapse
  36. define anatomical dead space and distinguish between alveolar and minute ventilation:
    • air that actually enters the alveoli becomes available for gas exchange, but not all inhaled air gets that far
    • anatomical dead space: this air cannot exchange gases with blood; fills the conducting division of the airway; left over from preceeding breath; inspired air (TV) 500 mL - left over air (dead space) 150 mL = 350 mL ventilates into the alveoli
    • *must account for dead space when calculating alveolar ventilation
    • alveolar ventilation rate: most directly relevant to the body's ability to get oxygen to the tissues and dispose of carbon dioxide; respiratory rate X (TV - dead space) = AVR - the amount of fresh air moved/minute 4.2L/min
    • minute ventilation rate: the amount of air inhaled per minute; respiratory rate X TV = mvr - amount of air moved per minute, 6L/min

    • how does change rate and depth affect ventilation
    • MVR: same - example; respiration rate (24) x TV (250) = 6000 mL/min
    • AVR: fast shallow breaths example; respriation rate (24) X TV- dead space (250 - 150) = 2400 mL/min; *not effective ventilation, exchange rate decreases
    • AVR: slow deep breaths example; respiration rate (6) X TV- dead space (1000 - 150) = 5100mL/min; * more effective than normal

    *** depth is more important than rate**


    unusable is constant, hyperventilation (increased rate) vs. excerise (increased rate and increased depth)
  37. define, know the normal values/proper units for and discuss the importance of tidal volume:
    • tidal volume: the amout of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle during quite breathing
    • normal value: 500 mL
  38. define, know the normal values/proper units for and discuss the importance of inspiratory reserve volume:
    • inspriatory reserve volume: the amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort; during forced inspiration
    • normal value: 3,000 mL
  39. define, know the normal values/proper units for and discuss the importance of expiratory reserve volume:
    • expiratory reserve volume: the amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled with maximum effort; during forced expiration
    • normal value: 1,200 mL
  40. define, know the normal values/proper units for and discuss the importance of residual volume:
    • residual volume: the amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration ( foreced expiration); the amount that can never be volunatrily exhaled
    • normal value: 1,300 mL
  41. define, know the normal values/proper units for and discuss the importance of fuctional residual capacity (FRC):
    • FRC: the amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expiration
    • normal value: 2,500 mL
    • how to calculate: RV+ ERV
  42. define, know the normal values/proper units for and discuss the importance of inspiratory capacity:
    • IC: the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration
    • normal value: 3,500 mL
    • how to calculate: IC = TV + IRV
  43. define, know the normal values/proper units for and discuss the importance of vital capacity:
    • VC: the amout of air that can be inhaled and exhaled with maximum effort; the deepest breath possible
    • normal value: 4,700 mL
    • how to calculate: VC= ERV + TV + IRV
  44. define, know the normal values/proper units for and discuss the importance of total lung capacity:
    • TLC: maximum amount of air the lungs can contain
    • normal value: 6,000 mL
    • how to calculate: TLC= RV + VC
  45. define, know the normal values/proper units for and discuss the importance of forced expiratory volume
    • FEV: % of vital capacity exhaled over a given time
    • normal value: 75-85%/1 second
  46. explain the difference between restrictive and obstructive respiratory disorders and provide examples of each:
    • restricitve disorders
    • reduce pulmonary compliance, thus limiting the amount to which the lungs can be inflated.
    • hard to inflate
    • decreased vital capacity
    • example: black lung disease, TB

    • obstructive disorders
    • interfere with airflow by narrowing or blocking airway
    • decreased FEV
    • decreased airway radius
    • can't get air out fast
    • example: asthma and chronic bronchitis (COPD)
  47. describe how smoking affects the respiratory system:
    • decrease cilia - leads to increase mucos
    • decrease macrophages activity - leads to increase bacteria, chronic cough and infection
    • cig smoke as 15 carcinogens
    • causes one of the more deadly cancers
  48. Explain Dalton's Law in the context of alveolar gas exchange:
    • the total atmospheric pressure is a sum of the contributions of these individual gases
    • 1. it is humidifed by contact with the mucous membrane, so its PH2O is more than 10x higher than the inhaled air
    • 2. freshly inhaled air mixes wiht residual air left from previous respiratory cycle, so its O2 is diluited and it is enriched with CO2
    • 3. alveolar air exchanges O2 and CO2 with the blood so the PO2 of alveolar air is about 65% of that inhaled air, and its PCO2 is more than 130 times higher

    • **via diffusion: high concentration to low concentration
    • *for external respiration
  49. Explain Henry's law in the context of alveolar gas exchange:
    • the amount of gas that dissolves in the water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in the air.
    • a. the PO2 of alveolar air is initially higher thatn the PO2 of the blood arriving at an alveolous. O2 diffuses into the blood until the two are in equilibrium
    • b. the PCO2 of the arriving blood is initially higher than the PCO2 of teh alveolar air. CO2 diffuses into the alevolus until the two are at equilibrium.
    • it takes about 0.25 second for both gases to reach equilibrium

    • diffusion conditions
    • gases diffused from high (parital pressure) to low PP; higher pressure - more gases dissolved
    • each gas behaives independently
    • constant temperature

    • * CO2 is 20x more soluble than O2
    • *RBC transit time = 0.75 -0.3 seconds
  50. know the normal pressures of O2 and CO2 throughtout the body:
    • arterial blood
    • PO2 is 95 mmHg
    • PCO2 is 40 mmHg

    • venous blood
    • PO2 = 40 mmHg
    • PCO2 = 46 mmHg
  51. describe how pressure gradient affects alveolar gas exchange:
    • the PO2 is about 104 mmHg in alveolar air and 40mmHg in blood arriving at the alveolus, so O2 diffuses from the air into the blood
    • the PCO2 is about 46 mmgh in blood arriving at teh alveolous and 40mmgh in alveolar air, so CO2 diffuses from the blood into alveoli

    hyperbaric oxygen therapy: treatment with oxygen at greater than 1 atm of pressure, treates gangrene and caronbon monoxidea poisoning
  52. describe how membrane thickness affects alveolar gas exchange:
    • respiratory membrane between blood and alveoalr air is only 0.5 micorliters thick, presents little obstacles for diffusion, plently of equilibrium time
    • diseased lung: respiratory membranes become edematous and thick, gases have farther to travel b/w blood and air and cannot equilibrate fast enough, so blood leaving lungs ( to rest of body) has high PCO2 and low PO2

    congestive heart failure, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis
  53. describe how the surface area of the respiratory membrane affects alveolar gas exchange
    • healthy lung: 70m2 of respiratory membrane available for gas exchange, blood is spread very thinly
    • diseased lung: elastic tissue breaks down, decrease surface area, decrease gas exchange, leads to low blood PO2

    examples: emphysema, lung cancer, and TB
  54. describe how ventilation-perfusion coupling affects alveolar gas exchange:
    refers to physicological responses that match airflow to blood flow and vice versa

    poor ventilation leads to a low PO2 (decreased pressure in blood vessels) in that region of the lung, this stimulates local vasoconstriction, rerouting the blood to better-ventilated areas of the lung.

    increased ventilation (increased air flow) raises PO2 and stimulates vasodilation, increasing blood flow to that region to take advantage of the oxygen availability

    • for CO2
    • decreased blood flow leads to reduced PCO2 inthe alveoli, so constriction of the broncioles, leads to decreased airflow, could lead to a blood clot

    increased blood flow leads to elevated PCO2 in alveoli, so dilitation of bronchioles, increased air flow, redirected blood flow
  55. explain the mechanisms for the transport of oxygen and know the relative amounts transported in each form:
    gas transport: the process of carrying gases fromthe alveoli to the systemic tissues and vice versa

    • oxygen
    • ~1.5% dissolved in blood
    • ~98.5% is bound to hemoglobin (4O2/Hgb)
    • arterial blood: ~98% saturated, (4O2/Hgb), bright red
    • venous blood: ~75% saturated, 3O2/Hgb, dark red


    • 02 Hgb dissocation
    • the relationship between hemoglobin saturation and PO2
    • at low PO2 there is a rapid increase in oxygen loading as PO2 rises further
    • at high PO2 levels, Hgb approaches 100% saturation and cannot load much more oxygen
    • 75%- cells can obtain more if needed
    • exercise - 50% steepness, easy to load/unload, systemic tissues
  56. describe how CO poisoning relationship to gas transport:
    • carbon monoxide
    • ~210x affinity for Hgb than O2
    • 0.1% CO (closed garage) binds to 50% of Hgb
  57. explain the mechanismes for the transport of carbon dioxide and know the relative amounts transported in each form:
    • transported in 3 forms: carbonic acid, carbamino compounds, dissolved gas
    • about 5% finds to the amino groups of plasma
    • CO2 + H2o > H2CO3 > HCO3 + H+

    • 5% of CO2 is carried in the blood as dissolved gas
    • 70% of exchanged CO2 comes from carbonic acid
    • 23% of schanged CO2 comes from carbamino compounds
    • 7% from the dissolved gas
  58. explain the mechanismes for the systemic gas exchange:
    the unloading of O2 and the loading of CO2 at the systemic capillaries

    • carbon dioxide loading
    • typically a CO2 gradient of 46 - 40 mmHg from tissue fluid to blood.
    • CO2 diffuses into bloodstream
    • reacts with water to produce bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydorgen (H+)
    • most of the HCO3- is pumped out of the RBC in exchange for Cl- from blood plasma, called the chloride shift
    • most of the H+ binds to hemoglobin or oxyhemoglobin, which buffers the intreacelluar pH

    • Oxygen unloading
    • when H+ binds to oxyhemglobin it reduces the afinity fo hemoglobin for O2
    • PO2 of tissue fluid is low, pressure gradient of 95 > 40 mmHg from arterial blood to tissue fluid
    • O2 unloads in tissues
  59. explain the haldane effect:
    • the rate of CO2 loading is adjusted to varying needs of the tissues, low level oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2
    • 1. oxyhemoglobin does not bind to CO2 as well as deoxyhemoglobin does
    • 2. deoxyghemoglobin binds more hydrogen ions than oxyhemoglobin by removing H+ from the solution
    • shifts the carbonic rxn H20 + CO2 > HCO3- + H+ to the right, thus allows more CO2 to be transported

    O2 binds to Hgb, has decreased affinity for CO2
  60. explain the oxygen-hemoglobine dissocation and understand the factors that affect the curve including temperature and pH (bohr effect)
    • temperature: increased temperature ( active tissues) promotes O2 unloading, the curve shfits to the right("releasing") // decrease temperature > O2 loading, curve shifts to the left (''loading")
    • borh effect: (acidity)active tissues generate extra CO2 which raises the H+ concentration, lowers pH. hydrogen ions weaken the bond b/w hemoglobin and oxygen and promote oxygen unloading
    • drop in pH shifts the curve to the right (''releasing")

    increased acid (decreaed pH) or acidosis, increase O2 loading

    • unloads more oxygen at higher temps
    • unloads more oxygen at lower pH
  61. discuss in detail how pH, CO2, and O2 influence the regulation of the respiratory rhythm:
    • Normal arterial blood values: PO2 - 95 mmHg, PCO2 - 40 mmHg, pH = 7.40
    • breathing is ajusted to maintain -
    • CO2+ H20 > H2Co3 - < - > HCO3 - + H+
    • CO2 directly relates to pH, increases CO2 > increased H+ > decreased pH

    • central chemoreceptors: near DRG receptors
    • in blood brain barrier: Co2 easily crosses, H+ does NOT easily cross BBB, increases the central chemorecptor firing

    peripheral receptors: less sensitive, stimulated by increased CO2, increased pH, decreased O2 (lower than 60 mmHg), causes increased ventilation
  62. define acidosis:
    ablood pH lower than 7.35
  63. define alkalosis:
    blood pH greater than 7.45
  64. define hypocapnia:
    a PCO2 less than 37 mmHg
  65. define hypercapnia:
    a PCO2 greater than 43mmHg
  66. define hyperventilation:
    increased pulmonary ventilation in excess of metabolic demand, frequently associated with anxitey; expels CO2 faster than it is produced, thus lowering the blood CO2 concentration and raising the blood pH
  67. define hypoventilation:
    reduced pulmonary ventilation; leads to an increase in blood CO2 concentration if ventialtion is insuffient to expel CO2 as fast as it is produced
  68. Understand how asthma effects the respiratory system:
    • A respiratory crisis triggered by allergens in pollen, mold, food, dust
    • Allergens stimulate plasma cells to secrete IgE, which binds to mast cells of the respiratory mucosa, causes mast cells to release inflammatory chemicals , which trigger intense airway inflammation.
  69. Understand how pneumonia effects the respiratory system:
    Respiratory membranes ( alveolar walls) are thick with edema, and the alveoli contain fluid and blood cells
  70. Understand how chronic bronchitis effects the respiratory system:
    The cilia are immobilized and reduced in number, while goblet cells enlarge and produce excess mucus
  71. Understand how emphysema effects the respiratory system:
    Alveolar walls break down and the lung exhibits larger but fewer alveoli, so there is much less respiratory membrane available for exchange.
  72. Understand how pneumothorax affects the respiratory system:
    The presences of air in the pleural cavity;without the negative intrapleural pressure to keep the lungs inflated, the lungs recoil and collapse
  73. Understand the affects of newborn respiratory distress syndrome:
    A deficiency of pulmonary surfactant and then experience great difficulty breathing; treated with artificial surfacant
  74. Understand how respiratory acidosis affectsthee respiratory system:
    Occurs when the rate of alveolar ventilation fails to keep pace with the body's rate of CO2 production
  75. Understand how respiratory alkalosis affects the respiratory system:
    Results from hyperventilation, in which CO2 is eliminated faster than it is produced.
  76. which of the following is NOT a fxn of th respiratory system?

    dissolves blood clots
    exchange O2 and CO2 with blood
    regulates pH
    synthesizes and secretes vitamin B12
    synthesizes and secretes vitamin B12
  77. which of the following is TRUE?

    A. the terminal bronchioes are included in a series of airways called the "respiratory zone"
    B. The bronchi and bronchioles contain smooth muscle
    C. the mucocilliary escalator covers the entire respiratory tract (from nasal cavity to alveoli)
    D. Type I alveolar cells secrete surfactant
    B. the bronchi and bronchioles contain smooth muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. The pressure inside the lungs/alveoli (Palv) at rest is _____ atmospheric pressure (Patm).

    A. less than
    B. greater than
    C. the same as
    D. not related to
    C. the same as
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. which of the following muscles is involved in quite inspriation?

    A. scalenes
    B. rectus abdominus
    C. pectoralis major
    D. external intercostals
    D. external intercostals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. Boyle's Law states that:

    A. as volume increases, pressure decreases
    B. as temperature increases, pressure increases
    C. as volume increases, pressure increases
    D. as temperature increases, pressure increases
    A. as volume increases, pressure decreases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. The part of the central nervous system responsible for the normal breathing pattern is the:

    A. cerebral cortex
    B. pons
    C. dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
    D. ventral respiratory group (VRG)
    D. ventral respiratory group
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. air flows out of the lungs during expiration because the:

    A. pressure inside the lungs increases
    B. pressure inside the throacic cavity decreases
    C. volume of the thoracic cavity increases
    D. pleural pressure decreases
    A. pressure inside the lungs increases
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. increases SNS activity:

    A. causes bronchodilation
    B. increases pulmonary complinace
    C. reduces the dead space of the respiratory tract
    D. reduces the surface tension inside the alveoli
    A. causes bronchodilation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. Pneumothorax is:

    A. when the elasticicy in the lung tissue degrades causing the lungs to become overinflated.
    B. when air gets into the pleural space causing the lungs to collapse
    C. when muscles of the respiratory tract become payalyzed preventing bronchoconstriction
    D. when muscles of the chest/thoracic cavity become paralyzed preventing inspiration
    B. when air gets into the pleural space causing the lungs to collapse
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. food is kept out fo the lower respiratory tract by which of the follwing structures?

    A. vestibular folds
    B. septal cartliage
    C. both B and C
    D. epiglottis
    C. both B and C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. new born respiratory distress syndrome is ususally associated with:

    A. the pressure difference between the atmosphere and the air in the alveoli
    B. a reduction of surfactant
    C. increased compliance
    D. increased diametere of the airways
    B. a reduction of surfactant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. If Pauline's expiratory reserve volume is 1200 mL, her vital capacity is 2000 mL, and her breathing rate is 10 breaths/min, then her minute ventilation rate is _____ ml/min. With a dead space of 500 mL, Pauline's alveolar ventialtion rate is ____ ml/min.

    A. 15000/7000
    B. 5000/4000
    C. 2000/1200
    D. 8000/3000
    D. 8000/3000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. which of the following is FALSE about smoking?

    A. smoking can cause chronic bronchitis which is an bostructive lung disorder
    B. smoking causes lung cancer, which is the deadlist of all cancers
    C. smoking increases the number of cilia along the respiratory tract.
    D. smoking decreases the activity of macrophages inside the alveoli
    C. smoking increases the number of cilia along the respiratory tract.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. The partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood is approximately:

    A. 160 mmHg
    B. 40 mmHg
    C. 95 mmHg
    D. 46 mmHg
    E. 60 mmHg
    C. 95 mmHg
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. which of the following describes the Haldane effect?

    A. deoxygenated hemoglobin has a higher affinity for CO2 than oxygenated hemoglobin
    B. as blood CO2 increases, the pH of the blood decreases to stimulate chemoreceptors
    C. hemoglobin will unload more O2 when acidity increases
    D. hemoglobin will load more O2 when the temperature decreases
    A. deoxygenated hemoglobin has a higher affinity for CO2 than oxygenated hemoglobin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. most of the oxygen in the blood is _____ ; and most carbon dioxide is transported as ____.

    A. dissolved gas; dissolved gas
    B. bound to hemoglobin; bicarbonate
    C. dissolved gas; bicarbonate
    D. bound to hemoglobin; bound to hemoglobin
    B. bound to hemoglobin; bicarbonate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. increased oxygen unloading will occur with ____ temperature and ____ pH.

    A. decreased; increased
    B. increased; decreased
    C. decreased; decreased
    D. increased; decreased
    B. increased; decreased
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. hyperventilation is defined as:

    A. an increase in ventilation faster than the rate of CO2 production
    B. an increased breathing rate
    C. an increase in breathing rate triggered by lack of O2
    D. labored, gasping breathing
    E. an increased rate and depth of breathing
    A. an increased in ventilation faster than the rate of CO2 production
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. which of the following stimulates increased ventilation?

    A. decreased CO2
    B. increased O2
    C. decreased H+
    D. increased H+
    D. increased H+
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. hypoventilating causes:

    A. decreased PCO2
    B. respiratory alkalosis
    C. decreased H+
    D. decreased blood pH
    D. decreased blood pH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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