Chapter 16 (2)
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_____ must be present in a cell for the hormone to affect.
An appropriate protein receptor.
What are the two possible receptor locations on target cells?
- Receptor in plasma membrane
- Receptor in cytoplasm or nucleus
Can water soluble hormones pass through a cell membrane?
No, These normally act as a first messenger that goes on to activate a second messenger that then affects enzyme activity and changes cellular metabolic reactions. This usually involves a G Protein.
What are two examples of lipid soluble hormones that pass through the cell membrane?
- Affect DNA transcription rate and protein synthesis
- Change synthesis of enzyme and structural proteins affecting cell’s metabolic activity and structure
Describe thyroid hormones.
- Bind to receptors on mitochondria, affecting energy production
- Bind to receptors in nucleus, affecting cell’s metabolic activity and structure
The _____ provides highest level of endocrine function.
What are the three mechanisms by which the hypothalamus controls endocrine function?
- Has neurons that secrete two hormones released from posterior pituitary
- Secretes regulatory hormones that control anterior pituitary gland endocrine cells
- contains autonomic (sympathetic) neurons that stimulate release of hormones from adrenal medulla
What are the two hormones that are released from the posterior pituitary?
- Antidiuretic hormone (from supraoptic nucleus)
- Oxytocin (from paraventricular nucleus)
Regulatory hormones that control anterior pituitary gland endocrine cells travel to the pituitary gland by what?
fenestrated capillaries known as hypophyseal portal system
What are the two types of regulatory hormones?
- Releasing hormones (stimulate hormone release)
- Inhibiting hormones (prevent hormone release)
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