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  1. What are the two intrinsic defense systems of the immune system?
    • innate -nonspecific
    • adaptive - specific
  2. Which acts more quickly, innate or adaptive?
  3. What does it mean for a defense system to be specific or nonspecific?
    • nonspecific attacks all foreign bodies the same way
    • specific coordinates per foreign body a specific way to attack and destroy it every time its exposed
    • nonspecific may prepare specific attacks on a future foreign invader
  4. What are the two innate defense lines?
    1st and 2nd
  5. What defenses are in the 2st line of defense in the innate defenses?
    surface barriers and mucous membranes
  6. What surface barriers are included in the 1st line of defense in innate defense system?
  7. What do surface barriers (skin) do?
    • prevent entry of microorganisms
    • inhibit bacterial growth
    • sebum excrete chemicals toxic to bacteria
  8. What do mucous emmbranes do to protect us?
    • mucus traps microorganisms in respiratory and digestive route
    • cilia trap and sweep particles away
  9. What do the 2nd line of defenses in innate defense system include?
    • internal defenses
    • (phagocytes, natural killers, inflammation, antimicrobial proteins, complement proteins, fever)
  10. What are lymphocytes are phagocytes?
    • macrophages (previously monocytes)
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
  11. What happens during phagocytosis?
    • phagocyte adheres to pathogen
    • phagocyte forms pseudopods
    • pseudopods engulf bacteria, becoming phagosome
    • lysosome fuses with phagosome, forming phagolysosome
    • enzymes digest bacteria
    • exocytosis removes digested bacteria
  12. What lyse and kill cancer cells and virus infected body cells?
    natural killers
  13. What is unique about natural kills, next to phagocytes?
    • natural killers can detect if your own cells are infected
    • phagocytes on identify foreign bodies
  14. Are natural killers phagocytic? How do they kill bad cells?
    • not phagocytic
    • communicate with phagocytes to alert the presence of bad cells
  15. What triggers inflammation response?
    damage to body tissues
  16. What does inflammation prevent?
    the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues
  17. What does inflammation dispose of?
    pathogens and cell debris
  18. What sets the stage for the repair process of body tissues?
  19. What are 4 signs of inflammation?
    • redness
    • heat
    • sweating
    • pain
  20. What happens to blood vessels when inflammatory chemicals are released?
    • vessels dialate
    • causes redness and heat
  21. What does an increase in permeability of local capillatries during inflammation look like?
    swelling and painful
  22. What are 2 chemical mediators which cause inflammation?
    • histamine
    • complement proteins
  23. What is released by a host cell when its invaded by viruses?
    antimicrobial protein (interferon)
  24. What is a type of antimicrobial protein?
  25. What blocks virus reproduction when neighboring cells are allerted?
    antimicrobial protein (interferon)
  26. What 2 diseases is the antimicrobial protein "alpha interferon" used to treat?
    • Hep C
    • genital warts
  27. What is the 5 step process by which a cell uses antimicrobial proteins?
    • virus enters cell
    • host cell copies DNA
    • antimicrobial protein (interferon) is turned on
    • interferon binds with neighboring cell
    • neighboring cell makes viral block
  28. What are 4 pathways of complement proteins?
    • classical
    • alternative
    • enhance inflammation
    • opsonization
  29. What pathway of complement protein means to "make sticky" and encourages phagocytes to kill bacteria by coating them?
  30. Which pathway of complement protein bring non specific and specific complexes (antibodies and antigens) together to destroy pathogens?
    classical pathway
  31. Which pathway of the complement protein doesn't involve specific (3rd line) defense?
    alternative pathway
  32. How are complement proteins labeled?
    C and a number or/and a lower case letter (Ca, Cb, C3b)
  33. What is an abnormally high temperature known as?
  34. Where is fever found in the body?
  35. What in the body resets the temperature to induce fever?
  36. What do leukocytes and macrophages secrete to induce fever?
  37. What are 3 functions of a fever?
    • inhibits growth of bacteria
    • increases metabolic rate
    • causes liver and spleen to secrete iron and zinc
  38. What are the 2 innate or nonspecific defenses?
    • surface barriers
    • internal defenses
  39. What are the 2 types of surface barriers (1st/nonspecific/innate) ?
    • skin
    • mucous membrane
  40. What are the 5 types of internal defenses (2nd/nonspecific/innate) ?
    • phagocytes
    • natural killer cells
    • antimicrobial proteins

    • inflammation
    • fever
  41. What are the 2 adaptive/ specific/ 3rd line of defenses?
    • humoral immunity
    • cell mediated immunity
  42. What cells are involved in humoral immunity (3rd/ specific/ adaptive)?
    B lymphocytes
  43. What cells are involved in cell mediated immunity (3rd/ specific/ adaptive)?
    T lymphocytes
  44. What is the difference between fever and inflammation?
    • inflammation is localized
    • fever is widespread
  45. What line of defense is systemic and responds to particular pathogens?
    • 3rd line
    • adaptive
    • specific
  46. What characteristic of the 3rd line of defense allows for a faster and stronger immune response the second exposure to a pathogen?
  47. What substance provokes an immune response?
  48. What protein is identified on a cell as an intruder or non self?
  49. What are the 2 groups of antigens?
    • complete antigens
    • haptens (incomplete antigens)
  50. What are the 2 abilities complete antigens have?
    • immunogenecity
    • reactivity
  51. What is the ability only complete antigens have to stimulate lymphocytes which starts antibody production?
  52. What ability do both complete antigens and haptens (incomplete antigens) have?
    reactivity: ability to reactwith activated lymphocytes
  53. How many classes of antibodies are there, and which is most common?
    • 5
    • IgG
  54. Do antibodies directly kill pathogens?
    No, they bind to pathogen to attract phagocytes
  55. What is the receptor in a cell's membrane that identifies the cell as "self" or "nonself"?
    MHC protein
  56. What are the 2 types of MHC proteins?
    • Class I MHC protein
    • Class II MHC protein
  57. How does our immune system identify "self" cells from "non self" cells?
    Self Antigens / MHC proteins embedded in cell membrane
  58. What MHC proteins are found on all body cells?
    Class I MHC proteins
  59. Where are Class II MHC proteins found?
    • B cells
    • antigen presenting cells (APCs)
  60. What are class II MHC proteins recognized by?
    Helper T cells (TH)
  61. What do cytotoxic T cells recognize on all body cells as "self"?
    Class I MHC proteins
  62. How do cytotoxic T cells know the body cell is infected with a virus?
    Class I MHC protein in membrane displays a portion of the virus to alert to TC
  63. What are the 2 types of T cells?
    • Helper T cells
    • Cytotoxic T cells
  64. What are 3 targets of the T cells?
    • cells infected with pathogen
    • cancerous cells
    • transplanted cells
  65. When are antibodies (2nd line of defense) no longer useful against pathogens?
    intracellular antigens present in self cells
  66. What does it mean to be immunocompetant?
    • to mature
    • be able to identify self and foreign cells and launch immune response when necessary
  67. What recognizes Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)?
    Helper T cells
  68. What engulfs antigens and presents fragments of the antigens to be recognized by Helper T cells?
    • Antigen presenting cells (APCs)
    • (Class II MHC)
  69. What is present on a mature B cell?
  70. What 4 steps occur when B cells launch an immune response (humoral immunity)?
    • B cells clones into plasma cells and memory B cells
    • plasma cells alert other B cells to make antibodies
    • plasma cells die
    • memory B cells stay in system for next exposures
  71. What are 3 differences between a primary immune response (first time seeing pathogen) and secondary immune response?
    • primary response is slow, secondary response is fast
    • primary response peaks @ 10 days, secondary response peaks @ 3 days
    • primary response drops off rapidly, secondary response remains high for up to months
  72. What are 2 general ways to aquire humoral immunity (antibodies)?
    • active (made in the body)
    • passive (transplanted to the body)
  73. What are 3 results of antigen-antibody complexes?
    • neutralization
    • agglutination
    • precipitation
  74. What 2 things do complement proteins enhance?
    • phagocytosis (by opsonization)
    • inflammation
  75. What 2 things can lyse a cell?
    • complement proteins
    • natural killer cells
  76. What are immunoglobulins?
  77. What activates complement proteins?
  78. Where does T cell activation (cell mediation immunity) occur?
    on the surface of APCs
  79. What are the 2 steps to T cell activation?
    • antigen binding
    • co stimulation
  80. When a T cell binds to MHC antigen complex in surface of APCs, and are stimulated, what is this known as?
    Antigen binding (Step 1 of T cell activation)
  81. What happens during the 2nd step of T cell activation?
    • Co stimulation
    • T cell binds to another receptor and chemicals are release to activate the T cell and B cell
  82. What do cytotoxic T cells release after binding to target cell?
    perforin (lyses cell)
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