chapter 11

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chapter 11
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  1. During the postclassical period, societies in the Americas...
    remained entirely separate from those of the Old World.
  2. The Toltecs established their capital in central Mexico around...
    968
  3. What civilization did the Toltecs succeed in central Mexico?
    Teotihuacan
  4. After the sack of Tula, the center of population and political power in Mexico shifted to...
    the valley of Mexico and the shores of a chain of lakes in that basin.
  5. What civilization did the Aztecs succeed in central Mexico?
    Toltecs
  6. What form of government was the basis for the imperial structure of the Aztecs during their first settlement in the valley of Mexico?
    city-states
  7. What was the capital of the Aztec empire?
    Tenochtitlan
  8. In 1434, the Aztecs...
    formed a triple alliance with two other cities.
  9. What was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system?
    From a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a stratified society.
  10. Which of the following was not a deity worshipped by the Aztecs?
    Tula
  11. What was the significance of the god Huitzilopochtli?
    He was the patron god of the Aztecs most closely associated with the cult of human sacrifice.
  12. Chinampas were the...
    "floating islands" utilized for intensive agricultural production.
  13. What was the nature of the Aztec administration of subject territories?
    Conquered territories were often left relatively unchanged under their old rulers as long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid tribute.
  14. Which of the following views can be associated with the concept of "Inca socialism"?

    A) The Inca empire was based on a republican form of government that offered political rights to laborers.
    B) The Inca empire was kept vital by the intercession of the priests via human sacrifice.
    C) The Inca empire was dominated by a strong merchant class that managed the economy for the mutual benefit of all classes.
    D) The Inca empire was a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need.
    E)The Inca nobility was taxed by the imperial government to support the poorer members of Inca society.
    D) The Inca empire was a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Following the decline of the horizon states of Tihuanaco and Huari,
    a number of large states such as Chimor continued to be important.
  16. Pachacuti was the...
    ruler associated with the first creation of the Inca empire in 1438.
  17. What was the Inca practice of split inheritance?
    All political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead ruler's mummy.
  18. Which of the following practices was common to the Aztec and the Inca empires?

    A) a tribute system
    B) extensive use of colonization
    C) None of the answers are correct.
    D) a writing system
    E) a merchant class
    A) a tribute system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following statements concerning the population of the Americas is most true?

    A) The population of the Americas has been estimated at perhaps 10 billion.
    B) The population of the Americas before 1500 is easily calculated.
    C) The early 20th-century estimate of 8.4 million seems most accurate.
    D) North America was more densely populated than Mesoamerica and the Andes.
    E) The population of the Americas was probably close to contemporary Europe's excluding Russia.
    E) The population of the Americas was probably close to contemporary Europe's excluding Russia.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The term __________ was a misnomer created by Columbus for Native Americans when he thought he had reached the Indies.
    Indian
  21. Nomadic peoples from beyond the northern frontier of the sedentary agricultural area in Mesoamerica, the __________ established a capital at Tula.
    Toltecs
  22. __________ was a religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs who emigrated from Tula to the Yucatan peninsula.
    Topiltzin
  23. Originally a Mayan city, __________ was conquered by the Toltecs ca. 1000 and ruled by Toltec dynasties.
    Chichen Itza
  24. The Mexica or __________ penetrated into sedentary agricultural zone of Mexico after Toltec collapse and established an empire ca. 1325.
    Aztecs
  25. The language of the Toltecs and Aztecs was __________.
    Nahuatl
  26. Founded ca. 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco, __________ became the center of Aztec power.
    Tenochtitlan
  27. __________ was one of the major Aztec gods associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle as the god of rain.
    Tlaloc
  28. The Aztec tribal patron god was __________, the central figure of the cult of human sacrifice and warfare.
    Huitzilopochtli
  29. Originally a Toltec deity, __________ appeared as a Feathered Serpent.
    Quetzalcoatl
  30. The __________ were beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands."
    chinampas
  31. The specialized merchant class in Aztec society were called __________.
    pochteca
  32. The seven major clans in Aztec society or __________ were later expanded to sixty and divided into residential groupings that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
    calpulli
  33. __________, or death while taking prisoners for sacrifice, was thought by the Aztecs to be a fitting end to a noble life and an assurance of eternity in the highest heaven.
    "Flowery death"
  34. The view created by Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia and carefully organized system in which every community contributed to the whole is called __________.
    Inca socialism
  35. The modern interpretation of Aztec society created by Marvin Harris, the __________ relies on the absence of large mammals to replace humans for sacrifice.
    cannibal kingdom
  36. The group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create an empire in Andean civilization ca. 1438 were the __________.
    Incas
  37. The ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471, __________ launched a series of military campaigns that gave him control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.
    Pachacuti
  38. The Inca word for their empire was __________.
    Twantinsuyu
  39. The Inca practice of descent, __________, granted all titles and political power to the ruler's successor, but wealth and land remained in the hands of male descendants for support of the cult of the dead Inca's mummy.
    split inheritance
  40. Located in Cuzco, the __________ was the religious center of the Inca empire.
    Temple of the Sun
  41. Waystations used by Incas as inns and storehouses, __________ could also serve as supply centers for Inca armies on the move.
    tambos
  42. Labor services extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion in the Inca empire were called __________.
    mita
  43. The __________ were a class of people removed from their ayllus to serve permanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the Inca and his family.
    yanas
  44. The system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system, __________ could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records.
    quipu
  45. Topiltzin
    Religious leader and reformer of the Toltecs; dedicated to god Quetzalcoatl; after losing struggle for power, went into exile in the Yucatan peninsula.
  46. Mita
    Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
  47. calpulli
    Clans in Aztec society, later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
  48. Inca socialism
    A view created Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
  49. Nezhualcoyotl
    Leading Aztec king of the 15th century
  50. split inheritance
    Inca practice of descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of cult of dead Inca's mummy.
  51. Tlaloc
    Major god of Aztecs; associated with fertility and the agricultural cycle; god of rain.
  52. Quipu
    system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records.
  53. Huitzilopochtli
    Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god.
  54. Twantinsuyu
    Word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Columbia to Chila and eastward to norther Argentina
  55. Curacas
    Ayllu chiefs with privileges of dress and access to resources; community leaders among Andean societies
  56. chinampas
    Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to creat "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs.
  57. Quetzalcoatl
    Toltec deity; Feathered Serpent; adopted by Aztecs as a major god.
  58. Tenochtitlan
    Founded 1325 on marshy island in Lake Texaco; became center of Aztec power; joined with Tlacopan and Texaco in 1434 to form a triple alliance that controlled most of central plateau of Mesoameria
  59. pochteca
    Special merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items.
  60. huacas
    Sacred spirits and powers that resided or appeared in caves, mountains, rocks, rivers, and other natural phenomena; typical of Andean societies.
  61. Toltec culture
    Succeeded Teotihuacan culture in central Mexico: strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice; influenced large territory after 1000 CE; declined after 1200 CE.
  62. tambos
    Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on movel relay points for system of runners used to carry messages.
  63. Temple of the Sun
    Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion;held mummies of past Incas.
  64. Pachacuti
    Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.
  65. Yanas
    A class of people within Inca society removed from their ayllus to serve ermanently as servants, artisans, or workers for the Inca or the Inca nobility.
  66. Indian
    Misnomer created by Columbus reffering to indigenous peoples of New World; implies social and ethnic commonality among Native Americans that did not exist; still used to apply to Native Americans.
  67. What civilization did the Toltecs succeed in central Mexico?
    Teotihuacan
  68. After the sack of Tula, the center of population and political power in Mexico shifted to....
    the valley of Mexico and the shores of a chain of lakes in that basin.
  69. What civilization did the Aztecs succeed in central Mexico?
    Toltecs
  70. What form of government was the basis for the imperial structure of the Aztecs during their first settlement in the valley of Mexico?
    City states
  71. What was the capital of the Aztec empire?
    Tenochtitlan
  72. In 1434, the Aztecs...
    formed a triple alliance with two other cities
  73. What was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system?
    From a loose association of clans, Aztec society became a stratified society.
  74. Deitys worshiped by Aztecs?
    Huitzilopochtli, Tonatiuh, Tlaloc
  75. What was the significance of the god Huitzilopochtli?
    he was the patron god of the Aztecs most closely associated with the cult of human sacrifice.
  76. What was the nature of the Aztec administration of subject territories?
    Conquered territories were often left relatively unchanged under their old rulers as long as they recognized Aztec supremacy and paid tribute.
  77. associated with the concept of "Inca socialism"?
    The Inca empire was a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need.
  78. Following the decline of the horizon states of Tihuanaco and Huari,
    a number of large states such as Chimor continued to be important.
  79. Pachacuti was the...
    ruler associated with the first creation of the Inca empire in 1438
  80. Which of the following practices was common to the Aztec and the Inca empires?
    Tribute system
  81. Difference between life of women in Mesoamerica and in Mediterranean world?
    Limited technology confined Mesoamerican women to many more hours grinding grain for food
  82. Major themes/cults of Aztec religion?
    creator deities, gods of fertility, gods of warfare, agricultural cycle
  83. What did Aztec kin groups do?
    Organized military units and labor units, distributed land, maintained schools and temples
  84. What happened when Aztecs rose to power?
    New ruler with supreme powers, uncreasing dominance of nobility, expansion of power and bounderies, highly urbanizaed society
  85. How did the Aztecs view history?
    Cyclical pattern of repetitive destructions of the world
  86. Northern nomads who came into central Mexico after Teotihuacan were...?
    Toltecs
  87. Difference between Incas and Aztecs?
    lack of writing system
  88. Andean principle of inheritance?
    parallel descent, or inheritance passing in both male and female line
  89. Aztec view of cultural achievements of toltecs?
    as the givers of civilization
  90. Why did Inca chose to conquer and expand?
    split inheritance

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