mrt 260

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Author:
marlasherman
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138775
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mrt 260
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2012-03-04 16:43:18
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  1. The sternum is best demonstrated on a
    Right anterior oblique view
  2. The right axillary ribs are best demonstrated on a
    Left anterior oblique view
  3. What are the three patient positions that can be used for demonstrating a lateral view of the sternum
    • Erect lateral view
    • Recumbent lateral
    • Lateral doral decuibitis
  4. What are two things can be done to help blur the ribs on a right anterior oblique view of the sternum
    • slow breathing
    • SID at 30" is needed to blur ribs
  5. Why should the shoulders be rotated forward for the anteroposterior projection of the ribs above the diaphragm
    To bring the scapulae off the rib cage
  6. AN RAO view of the ribs will demonstrate
    Left ribs on the raised side
  7. What are the routine projection/views for the possible fractures on the posterior aspect of the 6 and 7 ribs
    • AP projection of upper ribs
    • PA projection of chest
    • POV of upper ribs
  8. Describe the breathing techniques used for the following and why
    Upper and lower ribs
    • Upper Ribs- Suspended insporation to have diaphragm at lowest point
    • Lower Ribs- Suspended expiration to have diaghragm at highest point
  9. What SID is used for a lateral view of the sternum?Why
    72in/180cm to reduce magnification and distortion
  10. Why is the ROA preferred over the LAO when imaging the sternum
    To project the sternum over the heart shadow anad for unifrom density
  11. What degree of obliquity is required for an oblique view of the ribs
    45
  12. A posterior oblique view of the ribs will demonstrate the side closest to the imaging receptor
    True or False
    True
  13. When imaging the ribs below the diaphragm specifically which ribs should be included on the image for the anteroposterior projection
    8-12 ribs
  14. Does the patien suspend respiration after full inhalation or full exhalation when imaging the upper ribs
    Full inhalation when imaging the upper ribs to place the diaphragm at its lowest point
  15. Which image is performed if the area of c6/7 is not visualied on a lateral view of the c spine
    • Swimmers
    • Twining
  16. What is the SID used for a swimmers view of the C spine
    100cm/110cm
  17. Dorsal kyphosis can be reduced while positioning for the AP projection of the T spine by having the patient extend their knees
    True or False
    False
  18. What is the central ray for the lateral view of the T spine
    Perpendicular to T7 1/2in way between jugular notch and xiphoid process
  19. Why would a long breathing technique be used on a patient for a lateral view of the T spine
    To blur rib detail and lung detail
  20. What level is the sternal angle found at
    T4/T5
  21. The zygapophyseal joints of the T spine are best demonstrated on the lateral view
    True or False
    False
  22. For the swimmers view if the patient cannot proerly depress their shoulder how would the radigrapher adust the central ray
    3 to 5 degrees caudad( you can angle patient)
  23. When the patient flexes their knees for the anteroposterior projection of the T spine this will effectiviely reduce
    Kyphosis
  24. Why do the arms need to be perpendicular to the patients body for the lateral view of the T spine
    The arms need to be perpendicular to the patiens body to move the ribs off the T spine so the IV foramina are bettrer visualized
  25. State two mechanical ways in which a more uniformed density may be obtained on an anteroposterior projection of the thoracic spine. ALso state how the methods would be applied
    • Anode heal affect- shoulders of patient at the anode
    • Breathing - Suspended inspiration or experation to blur rib and lund detail
    • Compensating wedge filter - Thick part towards head and thin towards feet
  26. What SID is used for the RAO view of the sternum and why
    30in SID usted to magnigy the sternum and blur the posterior ribs, because of distance from IR
  27. What AEC detector would you use with the RAO view of the sternum
    You would use the middle detecter to penetrate the most tissue in order to see the sternum
  28. What is the SID used for the lateral view of the sternum ? why
    • 72inSID
    • Increasing SID pervents magnification and distortion
  29. What are 3 patient positions you could use to position for a lateral view of the sternum
    • Lateral erect
    • Lateral recumbent
    • Dorsal decubitus (cross table shoot thru)
  30. What is an average exposure technique for a lateral C spine with a grid
    10mAs @70kvp ( patient size dependent)
  31. Why would you possibly use a 30 inch SId for the AP open mouth
    Decreasing the SID from 40in may provide the rays more ability to open up the joint space for better visualization
  32. What is an additional view that you could do to visualize the odontiod
    You could position a waters or over extened waters view (skull) to visualize the odontiod
  33. What SID is used for oblique C spine views?Why
    For posterior obliques you could use either 40 or 72 inches this will depend on the limitations of the x ray tube height
  34. Why is collimation so important when imaging the lateral T spine
    Due to the higher technique used the scatter will affect your image without proper collimation be sure to collimate tightly to the C shape of the spine ( which varies greatly for body habitus)
  35. Can a swimmers image be obtained without using a bucky
    Yes as long as a grid is used with the cassette
  36. State options that you have for improving density on an AP of the T spine
    You could use a wedge filter or anode heel affect
  37. Specifically when would a swimmers view be obtained for imaging the T spine
    You would need a swimmers to proper demonstrate the upper T spine (T1-T4)
  38. What SID is used for a swimmers view
    40 or 44 in as per unit
  39. State the options and reasons for different SID that can be utilized for the AP projection of the L spine
    48in may be used to reduce distortion and to better open the intervertebral joints spaces due to beam divergence
  40. Where should lead be placed to improve radigraphic quality in the lateral lumbar position? how does this help the image
    The lead should be placed behind the patients back to reduce scatter radiation and table radiation. Scatter blackens the spinous processes and reduces image contrast so you need the lead to improve image quality and provide better contrast
  41. Why is tight collimation so important with the L5-S1 lateral view
    Collimation is important to reduce scatter because of the high exposure required for this position in the pelvic area
  42. What should you consider about the layout of anatomy when performing a shoot thru lateral of the L spine or T spine
    T spine -Kyphotic curve and L spine lordotic curve - this will affect the level that you will center at with a horizontal beam
  43. If your were imaging a very large person for a lateral L spine and your AEC kept timing out what would you do to resolve the problem
    Increase your back up time and you could also consider increasing your Kv for more penetration( manually setting your technique could also be benificial)
  44. Would a technologist use shielding on the POV of the SI joints
    Yes you could provide the female patient with shielding on the unaffected side.Males can be shielded more easily due to the position of their reproductive parts
  45. If you place the lead strip behind the patient for a lateral view of the sternum and center too posteriorly what would occur when using AEC
    If you have incorrectly centered too posteriorly andn the beam is partially on the lead strip your image will be extermely overexposed because the lead strip will cause the AEC to tim eout and be a long exposure
  46. What images would you perform if the doctor requested both sacrum and coccyx
    AP sacrum, AP coccyx and the lateral including both sacrum and coccyx ( in one exposure)
  47. Which joint is best demonstrated on a Right posterior oblique view of the sacroilac joints
    The SI joint of the left side. Which is the side up
  48. What is the central ray to perform an AP projection of the sacroiliac joints on a male
    30 cephalad to 1.5 in superiorly to the symphysis pubis
  49. State the central ray for a lateral view of the sacrum
    At the level of the ASIS to a point 3 1/2 in posterior of the ASIS
  50. When positioning the patient for the anteroposterior projection of the sacrum how can you assure that there is no rotation of the pelvis
    ASIS 's euidistant to the IR
  51. To demonstrate the sacrum free of foreshortening on an Anteroposterior projection the central ray is directed
    15 degrees cephalad
  52. To demonstrate the coccyx free of foreshortening on an Anteroposterior projection the central ray is directed
    10 degrees caudad
  53. Describe the central ray for the lateral view of the coccyx
    Perpendicular to 3 1/2in posterior the ASIS and 2in inferior of the ASIS
  54. POV of the C spine what side is demonstrated
    Side up
  55. POV of the L spine what side is demonstrated
    Side down
  56. POV of the SI joints what side is demonstrated
    Side up
  57. For a lateral view of the C spine what is demonstrated
    Zygopophyseal joints
  58. For the lateral view of the T spine what is demonstrated
    Intervertebral Foramin
  59. For the lateral view of the L spine what is demonstrated
    Intervertebral foramaina
  60. A Right Posterior oblique view of the SI will best demonstrate the
    left SI joint on the raised side
  61. When positioning the patient for the posterior oblique view of the SI joints to what degree is the body rotated
    25-30 degrees
  62. C1 level of
    mastoid tip

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