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Atmospheric Pressure
Force per unit area exerted upon a surface by the weight of the air above that surface in the atmosphere.

Fluid Pressure
Force exerted by a fluid on a point equal to the density of the fluid times the depth.

Gauge Pressure
The pressure difference between a system and the surrounding atmosphere.

1 atm equivalents
 760 torr
 760 mmHg
 101 kPa
 101,000 Pa
 14.7 psi

General Pressure formula
P = F/A
Pressure = Force / Area

Fluid Pressure formula
P = gh
 (rho) = fluid density
 g = gravity
 h = height of fluid

Specific Gravity formula
SG = D_{substance}/D_{H}_{2O}
D = density

Density of water
 1000 kg/m^{3}
 1.0 g/cm^{3}

Volume measurements of water
1cm^{3} = 1mL

Mass of water
1L = 1kg
1mL = 1gram

For objects floating in fluid, the fraction submerged =
The ratio of the density of the object to the density of the liquid.

Archimede's Principle
The buoyant force is exactly equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.

Buoyancy formula
F_{buoyant} = vg
 = fluid density
 v = volume of displaced fluid
 g = gravity

Apparent Weight
The apparent weight of a submerged object is the actual weight minus the buoyant force.
The apparent weight gives us 1) the buoyant force and 2) the weight of that volume of fluid.

Flow Rate formula
 Q = AV
 Q = flow
 A = crosssectional area of tube (m^{2})
 V = velocity of the fluid (m/s)
Application (cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate)

Bernoulli's Equation
K = P + gh + 1/2 v^{2
P = random kinetic energy of the fluid moleculesgh = the gravitational potential energy of the fluid1/2v2 = the energy due to moving fluid moleculesK = a constant
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Velocity of H_{2}O exiting a spigot formula
v = √(2gh)

Surface Tension
The intensity of intermolecular forces per unit length at the surface of a liquid.

Adhesion
An attraction between unlike particles.

Cohesion
An attraction between particles of the same kind.

Charge magnitude of an electron
e = 1.6 E^{19} C

Current flows...
From positive (+) to negative (–)

Electrons flow...
From negative (–) to positive (+)

What is current?
The flow of eletrons from areas of higher density (where they strongly repel each other) to areas of lower density (where there is less repulsion).

Electric Field
Field = an invisible influence that can exert a force on a mass or charge.

Point Charge Field
Equates to "real" gravity or gravity in space.

Constant Electric Field
Equate to "assumed" gravity or gravity near earth.

Electric field equivalent to "g" gravity
E  Strength of electric field

Electric field equivalent to "G" gravity constant
K  constant

Electric field equivalent to "h" height
r  radius or distance

Electric field equivalent to "m" inertial component
q  charge

Strength of an efield formula
E = V/d
 E  strength of an electric field
 V  voltage
 d  distance

Voltage for point charge efield formula
V = Kq/r
 V  voltage
 K  constant
 r  radius

Voltage formula
V = PE/q
Voltage is equal to potential energy over charge

Resistance formula
R = pL/A
 p  resistivity
 L  length
 A  crosssectional area

Potential Energy of a capacitor formula
PE = 1/2 CV^{2}
C  capacitance
V  voltage
C = Q/V
Q  charge

Dielectric characteristics
 Insulator
 Polarizable
 Resistor
 Makes more charge build up on the plates

Variables that affect capacitance
 Plate area (directly related)
 Plate thickness (no effect)
 Distance between plates (inversely related)
 Strength of dielectric (directly related)

Capacitor charge vs. time graph

Conceptual ideas of a battery
 Positive terminal has highest electric potential.
 Electrons build up on negative terminal and move to positive.

Conceptual ideas of a resistor
 There is always a voltage drop across any resistor.
 Current through a resistor is inversely related to resistance. 2x resistance = 1/2 current.

Solving circuits
 Must be simplified, eg. no more than one of each component.
 1. Resistors in series: add directly
 2. Resistors in parallel: add the inverses and take the inverse
 3. Capacitors in series: add the inverses and take the inverse
 4. Capacitors in parallel: add directly
 5. Batteries in series: add directly
 6. Batteries in parallel: total voltage = the highest voltage of any one of the batteries in parallel

Ohm's Law
V = IR
 V  voltage
 I  current
 R  resistance

Electric power formula
P = IV
P  power

AC vs. DC
 Alternating current is created by a generator and can be represented by a sine wave.
 Direct current is created by a battery.

F_{magnet} on a charged particle formula
F = qvBsin

