MCAT Physics 3
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Force per unit area exerted upon a surface by the weight of the air above that surface in the atmosphere.
Force exerted by a fluid on a point equal to the density of the fluid times the depth.
The pressure difference between a system and the surrounding atmosphere.
1 atm equivalents
- 760 torr
- 760 mmHg
- 101 kPa
- 101,000 Pa
- 14.7 psi
General Pressure formula
P = F/A
Pressure = Force / Area
Fluid Pressure formula
P = gh
- (rho) = fluid density
- g = gravity
- h = height of fluid
Specific Gravity formula
SG = Dsubstance/DH2O
D = density
Volume measurements of water
1cm3 = 1mL
Mass of water
1L = 1kg
1mL = 1gram
For objects floating in fluid, the fraction submerged =
The ratio of the density of the object to the density of the liquid.
The buoyant force is exactly equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.
Fbuoyant = vg
- = fluid density
- v = volume of displaced fluid
- g = gravity
The apparent weight of a submerged object is the actual weight minus the buoyant force.
The apparent weight gives us 1) the buoyant force and 2) the weight of that volume of fluid.
Flow Rate formula
- Q = AV
- Q = flow
- A = cross-sectional area of tube (m2)
- V = velocity of the fluid (m/s)
Application (cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate)
Velocity of H2O exiting a spigot formula
v = √(2gh)
The intensity of intermolecular forces per unit length at the surface of a liquid.
An attraction between unlike particles.
An attraction between particles of the same kind.
Charge magnitude of an electron
e- = 1.6 E-19 C
From positive (+) to negative (–)
From negative (–) to positive (+)
What is current?
The flow of eletrons from areas of higher density (where they strongly repel each other) to areas of lower density (where there is less repulsion).
Field = an invisible influence that can exert a force on a mass or charge.
Point Charge Field
Equates to "real" gravity or gravity in space.
Constant Electric Field
Equate to "assumed" gravity or gravity near earth.
Electric field equivalent to "g" gravity
E - Strength of electric field
Electric field equivalent to "G" gravity constant
K - constant
Electric field equivalent to "h" height
r - radius or distance
Electric field equivalent to "m" inertial component
q - charge
Strength of an e-field formula
E = V/d
- E - strength of an electric field
- V - voltage
- d - distance
Voltage for point charge e-field formula
V = Kq/r
- V - voltage
- K - constant
- r - radius
V = PE/q
Voltage is equal to potential energy over charge
R = pL/A
- p - resistivity
- L - length
- A - cross-sectional area
Potential Energy of a capacitor formula
PE = 1/2 CV2
C - capacitance
V - voltage
C = Q/V
Q - charge
- Makes more charge build up on the plates
Variables that affect capacitance
- Plate area (directly related)
- Plate thickness (no effect)
- Distance between plates (inversely related)
- Strength of dielectric (directly related)
Capacitor charge vs. time graph
Conceptual ideas of a battery
- Positive terminal has highest electric potential.
- Electrons build up on negative terminal and move to positive.
Conceptual ideas of a resistor
- There is always a voltage drop across any resistor.
- Current through a resistor is inversely related to resistance. 2x resistance = 1/2 current.
- Must be simplified, eg. no more than one of each component.
- 1. Resistors in series: add directly
- 2. Resistors in parallel: add the inverses and take the inverse
- 3. Capacitors in series: add the inverses and take the inverse
- 4. Capacitors in parallel: add directly
- 5. Batteries in series: add directly
- 6. Batteries in parallel: total voltage = the highest voltage of any one of the batteries in parallel
V = IR
- V - voltage
- I - current
- R - resistance
Electric power formula
P = IV
P - power
AC vs. DC
- Alternating current is created by a generator and can be represented by a sine wave.
- Direct current is created by a battery.
Fmagnet on a charged particle formula
F = qvBsin
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