HIS - midterm study guide (4).txt
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Sacred Expedition �
A joint settlement venture of G�lvez and Serra. It was a settlefent via mission and presidios. The goal was a rapid establishment of Spanish authority over Spanish territory. Began in 1769 with the establishment of the San Diego mission and Presidio. The Expedition was a departure from the Jesuit model of missionary expansion. It was primarily a military campaign.
Military bases established that housed the military and were for protection against natives. They were built with the missions during the Sacred Expedition.
Graham Affair �
1840. Foreign conspiracy to overthrow the Mexican government at Monterey. Isaac Graham, a fur trapper and mountain man, and 100 Anglo-Americans were arrested by Alvarado. There was no real evidence of a conspiracy however and they were acquitted in 1841. 4/5 of people abandoned their plan to move to California.
Compromise of 1850 �
Congressional battle over California�s statehood. The argument was that California would break the balance between free and slave states. It was proposed to extend the missouri compromise line, but the plan was rejected because it would have divided California into two states. The Compromise of 1850 was passed as a solution to the problem as well as many others. California became a free state and both New Mexico and Utah territories would given the option to because either free or slave states at a future date.
Central Pacific Railroad �
Established June 28, 1861. Leland Stanford was the President and Collis Huntington was Vice President. Mark Hopkins as Treasurer and Judah was the lobbyist. The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 helped fund the railroad by granting federal loans and land grants for the rail lines. This didn�t solve all the problems however since the funds were only provided after each 40 mile segment was completed. The Cost of labor was high so the Central Pacific Railroad began using Chinese laborers. Called �Crocker�s Pets� the Chinese proved to be harder working than the white laborers and demanded less pay. When this was discovered the Central Pacific began recruiting laborers directly from China and started to pump out 10 miles of track per day.
Southern Pacific Railroad �
Founded in 1865 with the goal to connect San Francisco to San Diego. It merges with the Central Pacific Railroad in 1870. The line was completed in the 1880s and was very beneficial to southern California and the expansion of the citrus market.
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