In what years was 'Comus' performed and published?
Year of his mother's, Sara's, death.
What year was 'Lycidas' written and for whom?
1637; Edward King
What years was Milton spending in Italy?
In what year did Charles Diodati die?
What is the name of Milton's first wife; what year did they marry and when did she leave him?
Mary Powell; 1642; about a month later (August)
In what year does the Civil War begin?
In what year does he reconcile with his wife and when is his first daughter born?
1645; Anne 1646
What year was 'On the Fifth of November' written; what is it's subject matter; and what language was it originally written in?
Most likely 1625; the Gunpowder Plot of 1605; Latin
Who directs the Gunpowder plot in 'November'?
Satan and the Pope
What is Foxe's 'Book of Martyrs'?
The Elizabethan Protestant martyrology
How are 'On the Fifth of November' and Satan connected?
'November' is the first and only example of Satan outside of 'Paradise Lost'.
In 'November', what country does Hesperia stand for and what historical event is this referencing?
Spain; the Spanish Armada
When was the 'Nativity Ode' written?
Define deadly forfeit
to come before, before the event
physical liquid from stars sent down to earth; in 'Nativity Ode' all the influence points to Bethlehem
What do shepherds/sheep equate to in pastoral poetry?
a guardian spirit
What poem is Milton's first piece of published work?
Who was Phaethon?
Son to Helios, the God of the Sun
A farming poem with mythology tossed in
What, originally, was Melancholy?
Too much black bile (cold and dry); this is based on the Galenic Humours
What are the four Galenic Humours?
Blood, Phlegm, Yellow Bile, Black Bile
What does Melancholy become during the Renaissance?
The scholar's humour
What are the time progressions in L'Allegro and Il Pensoroso?
Day to night; night to day
What mythical power did Circe have?
The ability to transform people into animals (pigs)
Are L'Allegro and Il Pensoroso written in couplets?
How does L'Allegro end?
Such wonderful music is playing that even Orpheus would be amazed, and his attempt at rescuing Eurydice would have been granted without the need to not look at her
How is Orpheus seen in Il Pensoroso?
He plays beautifully and makes Pluto cry; no mention of doomed Eurydice
How does Il Pensoroso end?
With the poet choosing to live the harder life of Melancholy
In what year was Comus first performed, where, and for what family?
1634; the Ludlow Castle in Shropshire; the Earl of Bridgewater (the Egertons)
What was the Earl of Bridgewater's job?
He looked over the Welsh borderlands
Who played the Lady in Comus?
Alice Egerton, 15, their daughter
Who played the Attendant Spirit in Comus?
Henry Lawes, the Egertons' music tutor
Who originally brought the character Comus into English masques, and what was the name of that masque?
Ben Jonson; Virtue Reconcilled to Pleasure
Who was the Second Earl of Castlehaven?
The brother-in-law of Bridgewater's wife; committed sexual crimes against his wife and servants. Milton's concept of Chastity in Comus was possibly an attempt at distancing the family from Castlehaven.
Who are Comus' parents?
Bacchus and Circe
Who will the Attendant Spirit help in Comus?
Only people already trying to get to heaven (righteous people)
What three virtues does the Lady have in Comus, and why is the third interesting?
Faith, Hope, and Chastity; Catholics would have assumed Charity instead of Chastity.
What religion was Milton?
Arminian, the other branch of Calvinism; they do not believe in double predestination
Aristocratic entertainment that involved acting, singing, and dancing. Created for specific families with roles created for specific people; who plays what role just as important as the role itself.
A magical plant in Comus, it's actual definition is unknown, though it is speculated it comes fromwords meaning 'blood-wine' and has a direct connection to the redemption of Christ
A Greek device revisited during the Renaissance that has quick, back-to-back one-line-long dialogue; example: Comus
How did Edward King die and where was he traveling to?
Who started pastoral poetry?
Theocritus with 'Idylls'
Who was the most famous Latin pastoral poet?
Virgil with his 'Eclogues'
Define pastoral elegy
Grieving over someone who has died, they are described as a shepherd. Usually has an upbeat ending, with a Christian and Pagan version. Can contain pastoral ecclesiastical satire, or satire about the Catholic church (connection between Shepherd as poet and Shepherd as Christ/Pope).
Who was the first to tell the story of Orpheus as tragic, and how did he die?
Virgil in Georgic IV. Ripped to pieces by the Thracian Maenads.
Define turtle wing and what poem does it show up in?
Turtledove; 'Nativity Ode'
What year was 'At A Solemn Music' most likely written?
1632, soon after the 'Arcades'
What does the title 'At A Solemn Music' actually mean?