A&P Lab Review
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Steps to take Bp w/ Cuff
- Arm should be rested at workbench, brachial artery should be at heart level. BP cuff is placed on bicep. Find brachial artery w/ two fingers, once found place stetoscope over artery. Inflate cuff until no sound is heard usually up to 150-160 for a pt w/ no high bp. Slowly turn exhaust to deflate bp cuff first sound heard(Korotkoff sounds) is the Systolic pressure. the next sound heard after will be dystolic.
- Bp parts Cuff, Inflation Bulb, Control Valve, Manometer
- less then 120 sys. less then 80 dys. normal bp reading
What is an Artifact?
Interference from other sources on an EKG. May be a loose electrode on pt skin, clammy skin, hairy skin or electrodes placed incorrectly, broken wires in cables. Gel on electrodes worn off
Vital Signs and What they are
Body Temp, respiratory rate, pulse rate and blood pressure
Location for Body Temp
Axilla, Mouth, Tympanic Membrane, Anal
What is a pulse
- Determines heart rate and rhythm. A pressure wave felt after lt ventricle ejects blood into aorta arterial walls flare. The pressure wave is felt this is the pulse.
Normal Ranges for Bp
- PreHypertensive 120-139(systolic) 80-89 (dystolic)
- Hypotension below 80 (systo) dyt. below
Hw to calculate heart rate from an EKG
- Six Second Method: count number of R waves in a between 30 large boxes and multiply by 10
- Rule of 300 divide the number between QRS by 300. ex 300/4=75bpm
Cardiac Conduction System
SA (right atrium) d/c 100x per min. takes place over three internodal tracts that converge on the AV Node. Bachmann's Bundle spilts off one of the internodal to depolorize lt. atrium
- Right atrial muscle>SA Node>Brach. Bundle
- | |
- Ant.Midd. Post.internodal tracts Lt Atrial
- AV Node
- Bundle of His
- Rt and Lt Bundle Branches
- Purkinje Fibers
- Ventricular Muscle
P Waves, QRS Complex, T Waves, U waves
- P Wave are the first wave seen on an EkG it is depoloarization of the atrial myocardium
- QRS are seen right after with Q being the smallest rising up to R and S at bottom. Depolorization of Ventricle.
- T Wave Next wave following the S wave repolarization
- U wave sometimes seen not always seen after T wave it is terminal phase of ventricular depolorization.
- Purkinje fibers are fiber branches that extend from the atrioventricular bundle.
- Relays cardiac impulses to the ventricular cells causing the ventricles to contract.
Bachmann's bundle is, during normal sinus rhythm, the preferential path for electrical activation of the left atrium. It is therefore considered as part of the atrial conduction system of the heart.
What is the training effect
The improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness achieved through regular aerobic excercise
How to calculate Target Heart Rate
Max Heart Rate in a healthy adult 220 & subtract your age for min. & max. Results then gets subtracted from the resting heart rate in both min. & max then subtract lower and upper limit% from the above result min is .70 and max is .85 then add back resting heart rate which= your Target Heart Rate
Four components of a fitness program
- Muscle Strength-How much you can move
- Muscle Endurance-How long you can move
- Flexibility-How much/far you can stretch
- Cardiovascular(Aerobic fitness)- how efficient is your respiratory system
Bradycardia & Tachycardia
- B= In a resting heart rate in an adult an HR less than 60BPM. Normally occurs in well trained atheletes whom eject a larger stroke volume w/ each beat
- T= A HR greater than 100% BPM usually occurs w/anxiety or physiological demand to match strenous activity.
Excercise Recovery Rate
1) Sit for 5 min. quietly 2) measure resting heart rate for 15 sec & multiply by 4 3)Jog in place until HR reaches min target HR (+/-) 5 beats calculate HR and write down 4) Continue to excericse at same stress level x 3 min. Dont let HR drop below lower target heart rate or exceed max target HR(+/-)5beats 5) measure HR during last 15 sec of excercise . This is excercise Heart Rate. 6) After excercising x 3min. sit and rest . Measure heart rate for 15sec @1min intervals until rate is below 100bpm. This is recovery rate. If you have to rest for more than 5min to get HR below 100 your cardiovascular fitness is below avg
forced vital capacity (eval lung condition) How much air was exhaled and how fast
Forced expiratory volume amt of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a full inspiration during a FVC maneuver
The volume of air exhaled during the 1st second of an FVC maneuver and the most useful for clinical diagnosis
Flow volume loop
called a spirogram. It compares both the flow rates and the volume changes produced at different points of an FVC and FIV maneuver
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