Aeronautical Fundamentals

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Aeronautical Fundamentals
2012-03-05 03:32:30
Hand tools

Hand Tools
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  1. Name 3 types of vices?
    • bench vice
    • machine vice
    • hand vice
  2. 2 different types of bench vice?
    • Plain Screw
    • quick action
  3. 2 types of plain screw vice?
    • swivel base
    • offset vice
  4. bench vices are classified by?
    • Type
    • width of their jaws
  5. machine vices are classified by?
    • width
    • maximum opening distance
  6. 2 types of hand vices used in workshop
    • toolmakers clamp
    • pin vice
  7. 3 methods to protect work from harden jaw serrations
    • vice clamps
    • special jaw plates
    • false jaws
  8. what are the reccomendations for the maintenance of vices

    hint: clapdown
    • grip work in the CENTER of the jaws
    • position work LOW in vice
    • never use vice as an ANVIL
    • use PROTECTion for work as required
    • take care not to DAMAGE the vice
    • do not OVERTIGHTEN the vice
    • do not leave the vice tighten WHEN not in use
    • clean and oil or grease the slide the screw and the NUT
  9. Name the parts of a file
    • handle
    • tang
    • heel
    • faces
    • body
    • edges point
  10. files are identified in four ways
    • type of cut
    • grade of cut
    • types of file
    • file lenght
  11. types of cut refers to the manner in which the teeth are cut into the face of the file. Name 4 different types of cut
    • single
    • double
    • rasp
    • curved tooth
  12. a file is graded by the pitch of its teeth. the more teeth there are to the inch the slower the cutting rate of the file and the beter the finish. Give 3 different grades of cut and teeth per inch
    • rough 10-15 teeth per inch
    • middle cut 15-20 teeth per inch
    • bastard 20-30 teeth perinch
    • second cut 30-40 teeth per inch
    • smooth 50-60 teeth per inch
    • dead smooth 80-120 teeth per inch
  13. 7 different types of file
    • flat file - general purpose
    • hand file - parallel in width with safe edge
    • warding file - very thin and taper in width
    • square file - used for filing corners and slots
    • 3 square file - triangle for filing corners
    • half round file - segmental in shape
    • round file - are round in shape
  14. Where is the lenght of a file measured from
    the heel to the point
  15. factors to be considered when selecting a file

    hint: smurf
    • contour of the SURFACE to be filed
    • MATERIAL being filed
    • amount of USE file has had
    • amount of material to be REMOVED
    • required FINISH
  16. Files must be kept clean in order for it to cut well. what rules should be followed
    • keep files clean and dry
    • never rap files on a bench
    • never bend or subject to excessive pressure
    • store separately from each other and other tools
    • keep work clean by using a bench brush
    • ensure file handles are sound and fitted firmly
  17. 4 different types of hammers commonly used for engineering
    • Ball pein
    • cross pein
    • straight pein
    • soft faced
  18. 3 different types of soft faced hammer
    • plastic
    • copper/ hide faced
    • lead
  19. hammers classified by?
    • type
    • weight of the hammer head in ounces or pounds
  20. 5 hammer precautions
    • free of oil and grease
    • head firmly fixed
    • inspect handle
    • don't strike hardened material directly
    • wear safety glasses
  21. 3 soft faced hammer precautions
    • file burrs off
    • discard split or damaged heads
    • replace worn inserts
  22. 3 different types of hand saw and example of use
    • hack saw - general purpose
    • spring bow saw - cutting small sections in confined spaces
    • pad saw - for sawing in awkward positions
  23. 2 different types of metal use for hacksaw blades and example of use
    • low alloy steel - general purpose cutting
    • high speed stee - fast cutting and maximum blade lifel
  24. 3 different types of high speed steel
    • flexible - hardened on cutting edge only will flex rather than break not accurate
    • all hard - hardened through out. very brittle but accurate
    • bi-metallic - combines qualities of other 2
  25. what is pitch in relation to a hack saw blade
    pitch refers to the distance between two adjacent teeth. expressed as number of teeth per inch
  26. what is set in relation to a hack saw blade
    set refers to the sideways bending of the teeth to make the width of the slot cut by the blade greater than the width of the blade
  27. 3 reasons for set on a blade on a hack saw blade
    • prevents the sides of the blade binding in the slot
    • provides clearance for chips
    • provides a means of removing chips
  28. 3 different ways of applying set to a hack saw blade
    • Alternate
    • Raker or rake set
    • wave set
  29. cutting speed for 2 different types of hack saw blade
    • low alloy steel - 60 strokes per minute
    • high speed steel - 70 strokes per minute
  30. factors to be considered when selecting a hack saw blade
    • type of material being cut
    • cros section of material being cut
  31. why is pitch important in hack saw blade selection
    • soft materials require a pitch of 14 -18 TPI to give adequate chip clearance
    • general use require a pitch of 18 TPI
    • hard materials require a pict of 24-32 TPI to give sufficient cutting points in contact with the work
  32. excessive tightening of a hack saw can cause
    • strain on the frame
    • score the pins
    • shatter all hard blades
  33. main precaution to be use when using a hack saw
    wear safety glasses
  34. steps to avoid damage to a hack saw blade
    • never allow the teeth to strike a sharp edge
    • limit the down ward pressure on the blade when only a small number of teeth are in contact with the work
    • keep the tension on the blade
    • avoid excessive speed combined with short strokes
  35. 3 main parts of a screwdriver
    • handle - wood or plastic
    • blade - hardened and tempered carbon steel or alloy steel
    • point - shaped to fit the type of fastener, slot or cruciform
  36. advantages of cruciform screwdrivers
    • less chance of the screwdriver slipping and damaging the surrounding area
    • alignment of the screwdriver tip to recess is easier
  37. variants of the standard screwdriver
    • stubby screwdrivers - use where there is limited room
    • insulated sheath screwdrivers - blade is insulated to avoid short circuting live parts and to provide some protection from electrocution
    • offset screwdrivers - used where there is limited access, points are set at right angles to the handle
    • ratchet screwdrivers - these have a ratchet mechanism built into the handle speeding the operation of the screwdriver
  38. disadvantage of the offset screwdriver
    because of the lenght of the handle far greater torque can be applied to the screw than with a normal screwdriver
  39. caution with the ratchet screwdriver
    the ratchet screwdriver is prone to slipping off the head of the screw and damaging the surrounding area
  40. 2 main groups of screwdriver and classification
    • standard or common type - by type, lenght of blade and width point
    • cruciform - by type and reference number which corresponds to the tip size
  41. 2 considerations when selecting a screwdriver
    • tip width - almost equal to the lenght of the bottom of the slot
    • tip thickness - almost equal to the width of the slot
  42. precautions to be observed when using a screwdriver
    • select the correct type and size
    • tip is in good condition and a good fit in the screw slot
    • handle is free from grease,splits and defects
    • keep your hand away free areas where it could be injured by a alipping screwdriver
    • brace small work on a bench or hold it in a vice
    • keep axis of blade in line with axis of screw
  43. powered screwdriver precautions
    • ensure screw is correctly started before using a powered driver
    • ensure correct torque setting is used
    • crack screws first before using powered driver
    • ensure powered driver is square to screw
  44. 11 different types of spanner
    • open ended - liable to spring under load
    • ring spanner - ring the hexagon overcome open ended disadvantage
    • combination spanner - mixture of ring and open ended
    • fare nut spanner - have a gap in each head for dealing with union nuts
    • ratchet spanner - reversible ratchet handle
    • socket spanner - basic bi hexagonal socket is attached to a wide range of driving fitments
    • crows foot spanner - enables access to awkwardly located fasteners
    • C spanner - has a projecting lug that fits into a notch cut in the circumference of the nut or collar
    • strap spanner - it can be wrapped around a circular or irregular shapped parts
    • allen key wrenches - used with bolts and grub screws that have circular heads with a hexagonal recess in the center
    • adjustable spanners - not to be used on aircraft
  45. 5 common spanner sizing systems
    • whitworth - expressed as a fraction followed by W
    • british standard - expressed as a fraction followed by BS
    • unified - expressed as a fraction followed by AF (distance across the flats)
    • british association - marked as a number followed by BA
    • metric - expressed as millimeters
  46. damage to be aware of when inspecting condition of spanner
    • sprung jaws
    • jaws worn and rounded
    • cracks
    • worn drive sockets
    • worn and rounded internal serrations
  47. dangers resulting from the use of cadmium plated tools
    • cadmium impregnation of titanium alloy components resulting in their embrittlement
    • cadmium contamination of turbine lubricating oils, resulting in damage to the protective coatings on magnesium alloy components thus permitting corrosion
  48. to fit exactly a spanner must be
    • the correct size
    • placed correctly on the nut
    • in good condition
  49. when using a spanner to prevent personal injury the following should be observed
    • turn open end ring spanners by pulling on the shank
    • use the palm of your hand and keep it open if forced to push
    • use both hands on large spanners or when using a socket spanner
    • keep yourself braced and on balanced